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152 terms

BIO 202

Endocrine System
STUDY
PLAY
gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of:
Cortisol
Release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
oxytocin
Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as
Down-Regulation
The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because:
It is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
Steroid hormones exert their action by:
Entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by
Binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to:
Steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily in to target cells
The major targets of growth hormone are
Bones and skeletal muscles
Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP
Heart
The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is
Aldosterone
Does calmodulin act as a second messenger in second-messenger systems of hormone action?
no
Can An amino acid derivative be a hormone
yes
In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as:
Up-Regulation
The liver is affected b which hormone
the Thyroid hormone
Thyroxine is dfferent from other peptide hormones because
It does not require a second messenger to effect a response
Catecholamines and/or peptide hormones bind to receptors on the surface of cells that comprise target organs. This binding causes:
Adenylate cyclase to generate cyclic AMP from ATP.
Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. They accomplish this by
Increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid-base hormones?
Calcium
A hormone that regulates gamete production
FSH
Steroids or amino acid-based molecules released into the blood, which arouse tissues
Hormones
These produce testosterone
testes
Its primary function is to control the rate of body meta- bolism and cellular oxidation
Thyroid Hormone TH
Synthesize insulin
Pancreas
Consists of two functional areas: the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis.
Pituitary gland
Controlled by the sympathetic nervous system and release epinephrine and norepinephrine.8) Regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland
Adrenal medulla
Regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland
Adrenal cortex
A hormone produced in the adrenal cortex that enables the body to resist long term stress
ACTH
Hyposecretion of the Adrenal Cortex, fails to function- an autoimmune disorder
Addison's Disease
Arrested physical and mental development due to a congenital lack of thyroid secretion. Present at birth.
cretinism
Hypersecretion of the Adrenal cortex
Cushing's Syndrome
a group of metabolic diseases resulting from defects in INSULIN secretion, insulin action or both
Diabetes Mellitus
a complication of diabetes that damages the retina of the eye
diabetic retinopathy
any disease due to a disorder of the endocrine system
endocrinopathy
An adrenal medulla secretion that is a powerful vasopressor
epinephrine
abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs
exophthalmos
Diabetes that occurs during some pregnancies
gestational diabetes
Abnormal overgrowth of the body caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone before puberty
gigantism
A hormone that increases the level of glucose in the bloodstream
glucagon
An abnormal enlargement of the THYROID gland that produces a swelling in the front of the neck. Can be due to insufficient iodine in diet.
goiter
An autoimmune disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism, goiter, thyrotoxicosis and exopthalmosis.
Grave's disease
Excessive mammary development in the male
gynecomastia
An abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood.
hyperglycemia
A deficiency of thyroid secretion
hypothyroidism
The hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to high blood sugar
insulin
Surgical removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland, liver, brain or lung.
lobectomy
Hypothyroidism, Advanced in adults
myxedema
A hormone that stimulates contractions during childbirth
oxytocin
excessive thirst
polydipsia
excessive urination
polyuria
A hormone that helps control inflammation, immune functions, and the ability to withstand illness and injury
steroid
A hormone secreted by the testicles
testosterone
An inflammation of the thymus gland
thymitis
A relatively rare, life-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism
thryoid storm
having the nature, properties or qualities of an adult male
virile
Excessive growth of body hair in females
hirsutism
enlargement of the extremities, seen in gigantism
acromegaly
defective cartilage that affects bone growth
achondroplasia
kidney disease, can be a secondary complication of DM, diabetes mellitus
nephropathy
anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
adenohypophysis
clinical neurological syndrome characterized by muscular twitching and cramps and (when severe) seizures, found in hypoparathyroidism, hypocalcemia
tetany
Poisioning of the thyroid, an overactive thyroid gland, pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
thyrotoxicosis
a rare form of diabetes resulting from a deficiency of vasopressin (ADH) (the pituitary hormone that regulates the kidneys) resulting in polydipsia and polyuria
diabetes insipidus
thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone
calcitonin
insulin dependant,Requires insulin injections, IDDM, juvenile, less common, failure of insulin synthesis by B cells, may be genetic and autoimmune or triggered by viral infection, less frequent family history, can result in ketoacidosis
type I
NIDDM, Adult onset diabetes is a form of diabetes characterized by insulin resistence and often associated with obesity. Insulin therapy can be used but often isn't required.
type II
excessive sodium (Na) in the blood
hypernatremia
abnormal sensation of tingling or prickling
paresthesia
hormone produced by the pituitary gland
ACTH
hormones that influence sex related characteristics
androgens
nerve pain that runs down the thigh and leg causing extreme pain
sciatica
regulation of the internal environment
homeostasis
master gland controls the secretions of other glands
pituitary gland
secretes directly into the blood stream
thyroid gland
excessive glucose in the blood
hyperglycemia
secretes melatonin, which induces sleep and affects mood
Pineal gland
Catecolamines are produced by the _________ cells.
chromaffin
Which of the following is NOT a function or characteristic of glucocorticoids?
*They function to make sure ATP s available for normal meaboism
*They provide resistance to stress
*They raise blood pressure
*They are anti-inflamatory compounds
*They encourage connecive tissue regeneration
They encourage connecive tissue regeneration
"Moon face," "buffalo hump" on the back, a hanging abdomen, and bruises easily are characteristics of the disorder known as
Cushings syndrome
In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the target organ also known as
Upregulation
Which of the following is NOT a principal class of hormones

Biogeninic Amines
Eicosanoids
Glycolipids
Proteins and peptides
Steroids
Glycolipids
The _____ gland declines in size and function with age.
thymus
The ____ gland may influence our day/night cycles and even regulate the onset of sexual maturity.
Pineal
The largest pure endocrine gland in the body is the ______.
Thyroid
The anterior pituitary secretes all but
Antidiureic Hormone
Growth Hormone
Gonadotropins
TSH
Antidiuretic Hormone
The release of hormones from the adenohypophysis is controlled by secretions of the
hypothalamus
Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ
Hypothalamus
Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and moneralcorticoids.
Adrenal Glands
Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain.
Posterior Pituitary
Produces the hormones that promote the development of female secondary sex characteristics at puberty.
Ovaries
Steroids or amino acid-based molecules released into the blood, which arouse tissues
Hormones
Its primary function is to control the rate of body meta- bolism and cellular oxidation
TH
Synthesize insulin
Pancreas
Consists of two functional areas: the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis
Pituitary Gland
This hormone is responsible for promoting and maintaining lactation after childbirth
Prolactin
A hormone produced in the adrenal cortex that enables the body to resist long term stress
glucocorticoids
Controlled by the sympathetic nervous system and release epinephrine and norepinephrine
Adrenal Medulla
Regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland
ACTH
Consists of two functional areas: the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis
Pituitary Gland
Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to
Cortisol
The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is:
Aldosterone
Which of the following does not act as a second messenger in second-messenger systems of hormone action?
Calmodulin
Select the correct statement about hormonal structure or function
An amino acid derivative can be a hormone.
In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as
Up-regulation
Which of the following organs is affected by thyroid hormone
Liver
Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?
It does not require a second messenger to effect a response
Catecholamines and/or peptide hormones bind to receptors on the surface of cells that comprise target organs. This binding causes:
Adenylate cyclase to generate cyclic AMP from ATP.
Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. They accomplish this by
Increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid-base hormones?
Calcium
Hormones belong to what to molecular groups?
Amino acid Based, and Steroids
What do all Hormones have in common?
chemical molecules, target cells, travel through the blood, effective in minute quantities
Define target Cells:
Cells that are sensitive to a particular hormone.
Located in the throat, bilobed gland connected by an isthmus
thyroid gland
found close to the kidney
adrenal glands
a mixed gland, located close to the stomach and small intestine
pancreas
paired glands suspended in the scrotum
testes
ride "horseback" on the thyroid gland
parathyroid
found in the pelvic cavity of the female, concerned with ova and female hormone production
ovaries
found in the upper thorax overlying the heart; large during youth
thymus
found in the roof of the third ventricle
pineal gland
programming of T lymphocytes. A-hormone, B-site of production
A-Thymosin, B-Thymus
regulate blood calcium levels. A-hormone, B-site of production x2
A-PTH, B-Parathyroid Glands, A-calcitonin, B-Thyroid Gland
released in response to stressors. A-hormone, B-Site of production x2
A-Cortisone, B-adrenal cortex; A- epinephrine, B-adrenal medulla
drive development of secondary sexual characteristics. A-hormone, B-Site of production x2
A-estrogen, B-ovaries, A-testosterone, B- testes,
regulate the function of another endocrine gland. A-hormone, B-Site of production x5
A-ACTH, B-Adrenal Cortex A-FSH, B-Ovaries & Testes A-LH, B-Ovaries & Testes, A-TSH, B-Thyroid Gland
mimics the sympathetic nervous system. A-hormone, B-Site of production
A-Epinephrine, B-Adrenal Glands
regulate blood glucose levels; produced by the same mixed gland. A-hormone, B-Site of production x2
A-Insulin, B-Pancreas, A-glucagon, B-Pancreas
Directly responsible for regulation of the menstrual cycle. A-hormone, B-Site of production x2
A-Estrogen, B-Ovaries, A-Progesterone, B-Ovaries
Maintenance of salt and water balance in the extracellular fluid. A-hormone, B-Site of production x2
A-Aldosterone, B-Adrenal Cortex, A-ADH, B-Hypothalamus
Directly involved in milk production and secretion. A-hormone, B-Site of production x2
A-Prolactin, B- Pituitary Gland, A-Oxytocin, B- Hypothalamus
How does the Hypothalamus control both anterior and posterior pituiutary functioning?
The Hypothalamus a)regulates the hormonal output of the anterior pituitary through releasing and inhibiting hormones and b) synthesizes two hormones that it exports to the posterior pituitary for storage and later release.
Indicate whether the release of the hormones listed below is stimulated by:
A-Another hormone
B-the nervous system
C-humoral factors

Hormones: ADH, aldosterone, estrogens, insulin, norepinephrine, parathyroid hormone, T4/T3, testosterone, tsh, fsh
ADH-B, Aldosterone- C, Estrogens- A, Insulin-C, norepinephrine-B, parathyroid Hormone-C, T4/T3-A, testosterone- A, TSH/FSH-A
What inadequate hormone, results in tetany?
Hypoparathyroidism, or PTH deficiency
excessive diuresis w/o high blood glucose levels
ADH deficiency
Loss of glucose in the urine
Insulin deficiency
Abnormally small stature, normal proportions
Inadequate amount of GH (Growth Hormone)
low BMR, mental and physical sluggishness
Inadequate amount of T4/T3 (Thyroid Hormone)
large hands and feet in adult, large facial bones
Overproduction of GH
nervousness, irregular pulse, sweating
Excessive amounts of T4/T3 (Thyroid Hormone)
demineralization of bones. spontaneous fractures
Excessive amounts of PTH
parafollicular cells of the thyroid produce
Calcitonin
follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid
Produces the hormone: T4/T3 (Thyroid Hormone)
beta cells of the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) produce
Produce Insulin
alpha cells of the pancreatic islets (islets of langerhans) produce
Produce Glucagon
basophil cells of the anterior pituitary produce
Produces the hormone(s): TSH,ACTH,FSH and LH
zona fasciculata cells produce
glucocorticoids
zona glomerulosa cells produce
Produces the hormone: Mineralocorticoids
cheif cells
Produce PTH
acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary
Produces the hormone(s): GH (Growth Hormone) and Prolactin
the difference between the CNS and the Endocrine system?
CNS System is fast acting, electrical messages sent from the brain and spinal cord, and short lived. The Endocrine system is slow acting, chemical messages sent from hormones secreted by ductless glands. Due to this they are long lasting.
What do all hormones have in common?
chemical molecules, target cells, travel through the blood, effective in minute quantities
Define Target Organ:
A tissue or organ that is affected by a specific hormone.
If hormones travel in the bloodstream, why dont all tissues respond to all hormones?
Because not all tissues have certain receptors needed for that cell to repond to that tissue.