What did Hippocrates propose about inheritance?
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Terms in this set (29)
What is a gene? What is an allele? How are genes and alleles related to but different than homologous chromosomes?- gene is a section of DNA that codes for a protein - an allele is a specific version of that gene. - Homologous chromosomes contain the same genes, but may contain different alleles for those genesWhat are the differences between genes that are dominant, incomplete dominant, co-dominant, or recessive?- dominant are the only one expressed - incomplete dominant shows blend of dominant and recessive (red and white flower making a pink baby) - co-dominance means the dominant alleles are equally expressed (ex. blood type and a white AND red flower)What is a pure bred? What is a hybrid? What breeding scheme is used to generate hybrids in an F1 generation?- Purebred are homozygous, meaning they have 2 of the same allele. - Hybrids still show the dominant trait, but they have one dominant and one recessive allele. - Hybrids are made by blending one homozygous recessive with one homozygous dominant.To what do the P1, F1, F2 generations refer?- parent generation - first generation of offspring - second generation of offspring (offspring of F1)Do you know how to setup and fill out a punnet square to predict genotypes of offspring from parents of a given genotype?you betterDo you know how to calculate the predicted phenotypic frequency from data in a punnet square?yuhDo you know how to setup, fill out, and read a punnet square for two separate genes with two alleles each?i think soTo what does independent assortment refer?the separation of alleles for one gene is completely independent of the separation of alleles of another gene, thanks to crossing over and random lining up of homologous chromosomesWhat is a homozygous genotype? What is a heterozygous genotype? Give examples of each- homozygous - 2 of the same alleles, AA or aa - heterozygous - 2 different alleles, AaHow is a dominant gene and a recessive gene indicated when using letter designations for a genotype?use the letters for the phenotype of the dominant allele (like G for green), dominant is uppercase (G) and recessive is lowercase (g)What are the three proteins tested on red blood cells of humans in order to determine blood type? How are these proteins represented when defining a person's blood type?A, B and Rh factor - A and B are codominant, neither of them gives you O type - If Rh factor is present, you're +, if not, you're -How does the presence of multiple alleles benefit our immune system?macrophages use the MHC II protein to grab parts of a virus they ate to show the rest of the immune system what to fight. there are several versions of genes for this protein, but macrophages express them all (co-dominance) helping them present a wider variety of virus parts for the immune system to identify and fight.What protein was discussed in class that is expressed on macrophages as an example of co-dominant expression of multiple alleles?MHC IIDescribe two biological principles about traits that explain how complicated phenotypes may not be easily explained solely using Mendel's genetic work?- traits can be coded for by multiple genes - genes can be expressed differently depending on the environment (epigenetics)What is epigenetics?the study of how the environment affects which genes are expressedName some factors that can influence gene expression that account for epigenetic?temperature/climate, stress, foods/malnutritionGive at least one example of epigenetic expression.rabbit fur - white in the winter because cold/snow but brown in the summerWhat was the effect of the prolonged ice exposure on the bunny?The bunny grew a patch of long fur like it would in the winter where the ice was strapped to itWhat are some advantages of being able to change how you express your proteins in different environments- Better acclamation to the climate - Avoiding predation - Slower metabolism if food is scarce