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opening in the underside of a leaf that allows carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf


Waxy, protective layer that covers the stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants. Helps prevent water loss.


The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.

air space

The area in the spongy mesophyll where carbon dioxide is changed into oxygen

guard cell

Pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing.

lower epidermis

protective layer on the bottom of leaf which contains stomata & guard cells


in plants, a cluster of vascular tissue in leaves

upper epidermis

cell layer that protects the leaf from drying out

vascular tissue

tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body in higher plants

bundle sheath cells

Cells in the leaves of C4 plants in which the four-carbon acids produced during carbon fixation are broken down to three-carbon acids and CO2.

spongy mesophyll

Loosely arranged photosynthetic cells located below the palisade mesophyll cells in a leaf.

paliside mesophyll

One or more layers of elongated photosynthetic cells on the upper part of a leaf.

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