Barron's AP World History Chapter 3
Terms in this set (84)
When were the first civilizations formed?
5,500-5,000 years ago.
Most civilizations have these basic features in common:
1) Economic system
3) Social system
4) Moral or ethical belief system
5) Intellectual tradition
6) Reasonably high level of technological aptitude
Between 3500 and 2000 BCE, the river systems in the Middle East, India, and China gave birth to the world's oldest civilizations. What are they?
Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus River Valley, Shang China. The 2 American civilizations were the Olmecs and the Chavin, who arose between 1200-850 BCE.
One of the world's two oldest civilizations was the Sumerian-Bablyonian culture that arose in the region of ________.
What rivers gave life to the Fertile Cresent?
Tigris and Euphrates.
Settlement began as early as 8000 BCE, but the first true civilization emerged among the _______.
As time passed, other groups, especially the Akkadians, _______, and Assyrians (911-612 BCE) achieved political dominance.
Babylonians (1900-1600 BCE)
Cities tended to be governed by _______.
Kinglike figures supported by a small ruling class of priests. Sometimes, individual city-states enjoyed autonomy.
The region's first empire was forged by who?
The Akkadian conqueror Sargon, who proclaimed himself "King of Sumer and Akkad" sometime around 2200 BCE.
Sumerians were the first people to devise a ______.
Written script; cuneiform. (ca.3300 BCE) Poems gave rise around 2000 BCE, to the Gilgamesh epic, one of humanity's oldest literary works.
What was Hammurabi's law code?
Compiled in 1750 BCE by the Babylonian King, it was harsh and death and mutilation were often punishments. It favored the elite over lower classes, the idea that society should be governed by a consistent set of regulations and not by the ruler's arbitrary will.
They honored their ________ gods in terrace-stepped temples called ___________.
They built ________ and were accomplished at pottery and metallurgy.
Canals and dams.
Keen astronomers, they developed a high level of mathematical knowledge, and originated the ________ that is still used today to measure time and for navigational calculations.
Base-60 number system.
What was trade like?
They traded widely throughout the Middle East and North Africa, and their economic network extended as far east as the Indus River Valley. Mesopotamian-Indus trade involved boat travel along the Indian Ocean coastline, with the Mesopotamians exchanging wool, barley, and copper for gems and cotton.
Who came to rule in the 1300s and 1200s BCE?
The Hittites. Adept at chariot warfare, they are notable for being among the first to systematically use iron weapons. Even more powerful were the Assyrians, who created one of the largest early empires.
Where did the Assyrians conquer?
Sizable parts of the Middle East, including Mesopotamia, and Egypt; holding their empire together by means of a deliberate policy of cruelty.
What did Egypt depend on for survival?
The Nile's water. Agricultural settlements emerged as early as 5500 BCE.
Its history as a civilization began in 3100 BCE, when Upper (Southern) and Lower (Northern) Egypt were united. During the Early Dynastic and Old Kingdom (2575-2134 BCE) periods, basic social and poltical features took shape. Civil war tore Egypt apart during the First Intermediate Period, but a culturally dynamic Middle Kingdom arose around 2040 BCE. It lasted until 1640 BCE, when outside invadors, the Hyksos, ushered a Second Intermediate Period. After rebelling in 1532, Egyptians formed a New Kingdom that lasted until 1070 BCE. It eventually collapsed due to internal disorder and foreign invasions. By the 900s BCE, most of Egypt lost its independence. They developed a centralized society presided over by a monarch and a small caste of priests. The monarch, or pharaoh, was considered the living incarnation of the sun god.
Egyptians built many cities and a sizable economic network. True or false?
What was the Egyptian-Nubian trade?
It brought gold to Egypt and gave it access to ivory, ebony, and exotic animal skins from the sub-Saharan Africa. Egypt raided Nubia for slaves, built border forts to regulate commerce, and conquered Nubia during the New Kingdom period.
Describe Egyptian women.
Secondary to men in terms of power and status; managed household finances, education of children. Had the right to divorce husbands and receive alimony. They could own property, and some managed businesses. Upper-class women could serve as priestesses.
Describe Egyptian religion.
Had an elaborate polytheistic religion. The chief of gods was Ra, the sun deity. The principal religious text was the Egyptian Book of the Dead. Pyramids were built as resting places for pharaohs after they died.
What were the written characters known as?
Using the fiber of ______ reeds, they pioneered the craft of paper-making.
What are some of their accomplishments?
Where is the Indus River Valley civilization located?
Modern day Pakistan and northwestern India. Arose 2600 BCE and lasted 7 centuries.
What were the two largest cities?
Mohenjo-Daro sat on a floodplain, 500 miles to the NE, Harappa was a gateway into the less settled but resource-rich frontier. (modern names - original lost)
Describe the river.
The river was rich with silt, flooded regularly, allowing irrigation and widespread agriculture.
It seems highly centralized and unified. Why?
Many cities look identical. Most cities featured a large baths, central granaries for food storage, and covered drainpipes for sewage disposal. They domesticated cattle and water buffalo and grew wheat, barley, and cotton.
What was trade like for the Indus Valley River?
They traded cotton and precious stones with their neighbors and perhaps with Shang China for jade.
When did it end and why?
1900 BCE. It is unsure. Thought to be by outside enemies, such as the Indo-European Aryans around 1500 BCE. But it could also be environmental factors.
The 4th river valley civilization emerged in China, along what river?
Huang He (Yellow) in the North. Yangzi River too.
Why were these rivers important?
They supported agriculture, allowing movement and fostering social and political unity.
China's history between the 1700s BCE and 1911 CE is measured in _________.
Dynasties; the successions of emperors.
Describe the Shang Dynasty.
Emerged on the banks of the Huang He and established a rapidly growing state around 1750 BCE. Led by a warrior aristocracy and able to feed and equip an army of thousands, the Shang fought their northern and western neighbors, whom they considered barbarians and expanded their borders by conquest. It originated from the Shang and led to divination (fortune-telling) and ancestor veneration (which reinforced a strong sense of patriarchalism). Shang rulers exercised religious as well as political authority, performing sacrifices and rituals of divination.
How was the Shang dynasty's trade?
They traded extensively and their economic network stretched as far as the Middle East. Principal commodities included jade and silk.
What was the effects of the Chinese system of writing, pictographs?
It originated from the Shang and led to divination (fortune-telling) and ancestor veneration (which reinforced a strong sense of patriarchalism).
What was the 2nd and longest lasting Chinese dynasty?
Zhou; founded in the mid-1000s BCE by a herding society that rebelled against the Shang. The Zhou lasted until 221 BCE, although it did slip into decline before that, about 800 BCE.
What did they rely on?
Feudalism (a form of rulership in which a weak monarch loosely governs a number of decentralized and militarized political units) caused the Zhou to steadily crumble from within, eventually collapsing after the civil strife of the "Warring States" period (480-221 BCE).
Around _______, the Chinese learned to make iron weapons and tools.
The Zhou made effective use of ________ to run their affairs and one of the Zhou's central political principles was the Mandate of Heaven, the idea that as long as a leader governed wisely, he could claim a divine right to rule.
When did the Olmecs rise and how long did they last?
They rose between 1400 and 1200 BCE and lasted until 400 BCE.
How were they different from most other early civilizations?
They didn't have a large river system nearby.
The _________ and ______ clearly had an impact on peoples within a large radius.
Monumental architecture, religion.
The Olmecs were skilled ______ and canal builders.
What was their diet consisted of?
Corns, beans, and squash.
What were their interests?
A fascination for astronomy,a complicated ball game played for ritual purposes and polytheistic deities, including their jaguar god. They also probably practiced human sacrifice and had a good trade network.
What was the first city in the Americas?
Caral, founded in central Peru in 2600 BCE.
What were Andean cultures skilled at?
Weaving and metalworking.
What was the most important domesticated animal?
Written languages did not develop here, but a system of _______ called quipu evolved, using knots tied into strings.
When did Chavin emerge?
1000 BCE. It dominated the coastal plain and Andean foothills of Peru. Their chief city, Chavin de Huantar, was located more than 10,000 feet above sea level.
Describe the trade in this civilization.
It was conducted between the seacoast and the mountain valleys.
What was diet like?
Fish, corn, quinoa, and potatoes.
What type of gods did they worship?
Variety of polytheistic. Some include a jaguar deity and the "Walking Sticks" God.
What are they known for?
The elaborate textiles.
What were the inhabitants of Nubia like?
They were located South of Egypt along the Nile River and settled around 3000 BCE; an important corridor of exchange is between north and south - Nubia traded with Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa.
The Hebrews of the Middle East emerged around 2000 BCE and gained a homeland in Israel around 1000 BCE. They developed the first major ______ religion, Judaism.
What was going on in the Mediterranean?
The Minoan civilization took shape on the island of Crete between 2000 and 1450 BCE, influencing the Greeks who emerged later. The Mycenaeans reached their peak between 1600 and 1200 BCE and fought the real-life version of the Trojan War (ca.1250 BCE) immortalized in the Homeric epics (the Iliad and the Odyssey) Greek culture grew more cohesive between the 1100s and 500s BCE. In Italy, the city of Rome is founded in 753 BCE.
Who were the Phoenicians?
A maritime culture that traded and colonized widely throughout the Mediterranean between 1550 and 300 BCE. From their home cities in Syria and Lebanon, they harvested cedar and manufactured a famous purple dye from shellfish. Their main legacy is the alphabet, which was adopted in modified form by the Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans.
Name an example of a migrating pastoralist.
The Indo-Europeans, specifically the Aryans, who played a huge role in the prehistory of India, by invading the north around 1500 BCE.
____ herders began their long migrations from the Niger River basin.
Who was Egypt conquered by in the 1600s BCE?
Hyksos people (Greek for "shepherd kings").
What's another name for a small, elite class?
What is oligarchy?
Rule by the few; aristocratic elites wield power without a monarch.
What is theocracy?
Government dominated by a few religious elite.
Name 2 things related to social stratification.
2) Social mobility
What are caste systems?
Strict hierarchies, where movement between classes is all but impossible.
Name some things that relate to slavery.
1) Debt slavery
2) Indentured servitude
4) Prison/Convict Labor
Trade led to the formation of ___________.
Marketplaces; it also strengthened contacts among villages, cities, and rural communities.
Name a few things that relate to trade.
1) Water transport
2) Overland transport
Until the invention of railroads and modern highways, water transport remained easier than land transport and trade tended to flourish along ________________.
Rivers, lake-shores, and coastlines.
What were some key transregional routes?
The Nile for Egypt-Nubia trade, Mediterranean supported a network of trade among N. Africa and the Middle East, Mesopotamian-Indus trade.
Monumental architecture required _______________.
Enormous expenditures of resources and labor.
What motivated these projects?
Religion, defense, entertainment, and public display of political power.
All cities are the product of _____.
India's ______ is a collection of Vedic hymns composed in Sanskrit between 1700 and 1100 BCE.
Religious beliefs crossed borders, sometimes peacefully through trade and _________, sometimes by _________.
Missionary activity, forced conversion.
Vedism influenced what?
It was a precursor to Hinduism. It set into place a rigid caste system; at the top were priest-scholars called brahmins, followed by warriors and political rulers, then traders, peasants, and artisans, finally the lower classes, including servants and laborers. Vedism taught that all creatures possessed a soul that yearned to be reunited with the world soul in spiritual perfection.
Name 2 things related to Vedism.
According to the Judaic traditions, the Hebrews, in the time of Abraham, entered into a convent as the chosen people of the god Jehovah. When did this arise?
2000 BCE, but the term Jewish was not used until after the 900s BCE.
Hebrews migrated to Egypt around 1700 BCE, were enslaved, and then escaped under the leadership of Moses around 1300 to 1200 BCE, which is celebrated during Passover. The holy books are the Ten Commandments and Torah. The Hebrew Kingdom rached its zenith under David (ca.1000-961 BCE) His son Solomon (ca. 961-922) the two of whom established a capital at Jerusalem and built the First Temple. After Solomon's death, the Hebrew kingdom split up and suffered invasions, starting with the Assyrians in 722 BCE, followed by the Babylonians in 587 BCE.
Who founded Zoroastrianism?
Zoroaster, in 1700 to 500 BCE. He probably lived in E. Iran. The scripture, Avesta, was compiled over many centuries, and emerged as a major religion in Persia by the 500s BCE. It is monotheistic.