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*If glucose levels are normal, filtrate levels are normal
*Untreated diabetic; BG too high; therefore filtrate glucose too high. The kidneys reabsorb glucose up to threshold level, but the excess remains in filtrate & excreted in urine


*Presence of protein in urine indicates the glomeruli have become too permeable, as occurs in some types of kidney disease.


*Presence of RBCs in urine may indicate glomeruli have become too permeable.
*Another cause might be bleeding somewhere in urinary tract.


*Bacteria give urine cloudy color; WBCs may also be present
*Presence of bacteria means there is an infection somewhere in urinary tract


*Ketones formed from fats & proteins used for energy production. Higher levels of ketones indicate increased use of fats & proteins for energy. This may be result of malfunctioning carbohydrate metabolism (as in DM) or simply the result of high-protein diet.

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