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113 terms

VANELLIS BIO VOCAB FINAL

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Myocardium
Thick middle muscle layer of the heart; pumps blood through the circulatory system
Atrium
Upper chamber of the heart that recieves and holds blood that is about to enter the ventricle
Ventricle
Lower chamber of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart
Pulmonary Circulation
Pathway of circulation between the heart and the lungs
Systemic Circulation
Pathway of circulation between the heart and the rest of the body
Valve
Flap of connective tissue between an atrium and a ventricle, or in a vein, that prevents backflow of blood
Pacemaker
Small group of cardiac muscle cells in the right atrium that "set the pace" for the heart as a whole
Aorta
A large blood vessel in mammals through which blood travels from the left ventricle to all parts of the body except the lungs
Artery
Large blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to tissues of the body
Capillary
Smallest blood vessel
Vein
A blood vessel that returns blood to the heart
Atherosclerosis
Condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries
Plasma
Straw colored fluid that makes up 55%of blood; consists of about 90% water and 10% of dissolved gases, salts, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, waste products and plasma proteins
Hemoglobin
Iron containg protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body
Lymphocyte
Type of white blood cell that produces antibodies that help destroy pathogens
Platelet
Cell fragment released by bone marrow that helps in blood clotting
Lymph
Fluid lost by the blood in surrounding tissue
Pharynx
Muscular tube at the end of the gastrovascular cavity, or throat, that connects the mouth with the rest of the digestive tract and serves as a passageway for food and air
Trachea
Windpipe; tube through which air moves
Larynx
Structure in the throat containing the vocal cords
Bronchus
Passageway leading the trachea to a lung
Diaphram
Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing
Nicotine
Stimulant drug in tabacco that increase heart rate and blood pressure
Emphysema
Disease in which tissues of the lungs loose elasticity, which makes breathing more difficult
Energy
The strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity.
Calorie
Amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1gram of water by 1 degrees Celsius
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
One of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store and release energy
Glycolysis
First step in releasing energy of glucose in which a molecule of of gluecose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Latic Acid Fermentation
Biological process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted into cellular energy
Aerobic
Process that requires oxygen
Anaerobic
Process that does not require oxygen
Kreb's Cycle
Second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into CO2 in a series of energy-extracting reactions
Electron Transport Chain
A series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs Cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP
NAD+ (NADH)
Electron carrier involved in glycolysis
ATP Synthase
Large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ATP and a phosphate group together to make ATP
Cell Division
Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
Mitosis
Part of the eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
Cytokinesis
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Chromosomes
Threadlike structures within the nucleus containg the genetic information that is passed from one generation to the next
Chromatin
granular material visible within the nucleus
Interphase
Period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
G1 Phase
Period where cells do most of their growing before cell divsion
S Phase
Period where cells are replicated before cell division
G2 Phase
Period where cells are checked before going through cell division
Prophase
First and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visable and the centrioles seperate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
Metaphase
Second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Anaphase
Third phase of mitosis, during which chromosomes seperate and move toward opposite poles
Telophase
Fourth and final phase of MITOSIS, during which the chromosmes begin to disperse into a tangle of the dense material
Spindle
fanlike microtube structure that helps seperate the chromosomes during mitosis
Centrioles
One of the two tiny structures in the cytoplasm of animals near the nuclear envelope
Cell Plate
Wall between the two new cells forming in mitosis
Genetics
Scientific study of heredity
Fertilization
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
True-breeding
Term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves
Trait
Specific characteristic
Hybrid
Offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
Gene
Sequences of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
Allele
One of a number of forms of a gene
Segregation
Seperation of alleles during gamete formation
Gamete
Sex cell
Probability
The likelyhood that something will occur
Punnet Square
Diagram showing the gene combinations that might result in a genetic cross
Homozygous
Organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
Heterzygous
Organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
Phenotype
Physical characteristics of an organism
Genotype
Genetic makeup of an organism
Independent Assortment
Independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
Incomplete Dominance
Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over the other
Codominance
Situation in which both alleles contribuate to the phenotype of the organism
Multiple Alleles
Three or more alleles for the same gene
Polygenic Traits
traits controlled by two or more genes
Homologous
Term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
Diploid
Term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
Haploid
Term used to refer to a cell that has a single set of chromosomes, therefore a single set of genes
Meiosis
Process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the seperation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
Tetrad
Structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
Crossing-Over
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
Gene Map
Diagram showing the relative locations of each known gene on a particular chomosome
Karyotype
Set of photographs of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
Sex Chromosome
One of the two chromosomes that determine and individual's sex; Male:XY Female:XX
Autosome
Chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Pedigree
Chart that shows the relationships within a family
Sex-Linked Gene
Gene located on the X of Y chromosome
Non-Disjunction
Chromosomes fail to seperate fully in meiosis
Nucleotide
Monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Base Pairing
Principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and guanine and cytosine
Histone
Globular protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
Replication
Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
DNA Polymerase
Enzyme that "proofreads" new DNA strands, helping to ensure that each molecule is a nearly perfect copy of the original DNA
Messenger RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
Ribosomal RNA
Type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
Transfer RNA
Type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
Transcription
Process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complemantary strand of RNA
RNA Polymerase
Enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and seperates the DNA strands during transcription
Promoter
Region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
Intron
Intervening sequence of DNA; does not code for a protein
Exon
Expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
Codon
Three nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
Translation
Decoding of mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
Anticodon
Group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complemantary to an mRNA codon
Evolution
Change in a kind of organism over time
Theory
A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
Fossil
Preserved remains or evidence of an ancient organism
Natural Selection
Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully; also called survival of the fittest
Artificial Selection
Selection by humans breeding of usefult raits from the natural variation among among different organisms
Fitness
Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment
Adaptation
inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chance of survival
Struggle for Exsistence
Competition among members of a species among food, living space, and other necessities of life
Survival of the Fittest
Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully; also called natural selection
Descent with Modification
Principle that each living species has descended, with changes, from a species over time
Common Descent
Principle that all living things have a common ancestor
Homologous Structures
Structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develope from the same embryonic tissue
Gradualism
The belief in or the policy of advancing toward a goal by gradual, often slow stages