Sociology, Chapter 12
Terms in this set (45)
the social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills, and cultural values within a formally organized structure
open, stated, and intended goals or consequences of activities within an organization or institution
What are the 5 manifest functions in education?
socialization, transmission of culture, social control, social placement, change and innovation
hidden, unstated, and sometimes unintended consequences of activities within an organization
3 Latent functions in education
matchmaking and production of social networks, restricting some activities, creating a generation gap
social assets that include values, beliefs, attitudes, and competencies in language and culture
the practice of assigning students to specific curriculum groups and courses on the basis of their test scores, previous grades, or other criteria
the transmission of cultural values and attitudes, such as conformity and obedience to authority, through implied demands found in the rules, routines, and regulations of schools
a process of social selection in which class advantage and social status are linked to the possession of academic qualifications
a social system in which status is assumed to be acquired through individual ability and effort
What do functionalists focus on regarding education?
the functions and dysfunctions of education
What do conflict theorists focus on regarding education?
the relationship between education and inequality
What do symbolic interactionists focus on regarding education?
classroom communication patterns and educational practices that affect students' self-concept and aspirations
the process whereby a person is identified by others as possessing a specific characteristic or exhibiting a certain pattern of behavior
an unsubstantiated belief or prediction resulting in behavior that makes the originally false belief come true
aggressive behavior that is intentional and that involves an imbalance of power or strength
the abolition of legally sanctioned racial-ethnic segregation
the implementation of specific action to change the racial-ethnic and/or class composition of the student body
a philosophy of education that aims to empower individuals, liberate the mind from ignorance, and cultivate social responsibility
a social institution composed of a unified system of beliefs, symbols and rituals-based on some sacred or supernatural realm-that guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a community
those aspects of life that are extraordinary or supernatural; in other words, "holy"
the everyday, secular, or "worldly" aspects of life
regularly repeated and carefully prescribed forms of behaviors that symbolize a cherished value or belief
Four major categories of religion
simple supernaturalism, animism, theism, transcendent idealism
the belief that supernatural forces affect people's lives either positively or negatively
the belief that plants, animals or other elements of the natural world are endowed with spirits or life forces having an impact on events in society
a belief in a god or gods
a belief in a single, supreme being or god who is responsible for significant events such as the creation of the world
a belief in more than one god
a belief in sacred principles of thought and conduct
the process by which religious beliefs, practices, and institutions lose their significance in sectors of society and culture
According to functionalists, what are the three functions of religion in any society?
meaning and purpose, social cohesion and a sense of belonging, social control and support for the government
the set of beliefs, rituals and symbols that makes sacred the values of the society and places the nation in the context of the ultimate system of meaning
systematic views of the way the world ought to be
the belief that, even before they were born, all people are divided into two groups, the saved and the damned, and only God knows who will go to heaven and who will go to hell
a religious organization that is so integrated into the dominant culture that it claims as its membership all members of a society
How do functionalists view religion?
sacred beliefs and rituals bind people together and help maintain social control
How do conflict theorists view religion?
religion may be used to justify the status quo (Marx) or to promote social change (Weber)
How do symbolic interactionists view religion?
religion may serve as a reference group for many people, but because of race, class and gender, people may experience it differently
Describe the organization of a sect? The membership? Type of worship? Salvation? Attitude toward other institutions and religions?
small, faithful group, with high degree of participation; closely guarded membership; informal, spontaneous; achieved by moral purity; intolerant
Describe the organization of a church? The membership? Type of worship? Salvation? Attitude toward other institutions and religions?
large, bureaucratic organization, led by a clergy; open to all; formal, orderly; granted by God; tolerant
a large organized religion characterized by accommodation to society but frequently lacking in the ability or intention to dominate society
a situation in which many religious groups exist because they have a special appeal to specific segments of the population
a religious group with practices and teachings outside the dominant cultural and religious traditions of society
a belief in the perfectibility of human beings through their own efforts rather than through a belief in God and a religious conversion