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disease chapters 14,16,19
Terms in this set (111)
What systems does neuromuscular diseases affect?
Central nervous, peripheral nervous and the muscles
Normal neuromuscular function depends on what 4 major components?
Respiratory center, Chemoreceptors, Nerves and Respiratory muscles
Where us the respiratory center located?
multiple areas within the medulla and pons in the brain stem
What three major components form the respiratory center?
Medullary, Apneustic and Pneumotaxic Centers
True or false: The Medullary center is responsible for maintaining a regular rhythmic respiratory pattern?
True or false: Both Apneustic center and the Pneumoxtaxic center are both responsible for rate and volume?
Where are stretch receptors located?
True or false: any disfunction will not affect the rhythm, rate and volume of breathing?
What is the most frequent problem associated with neuromuscular disease?
What other diseases are neuromuscular disease often mistaking for?
COPD and asthma
What are parts of the respiratory pump?
Respiratory center, Chemoreceptors, nerves and respiratory muscles
What muscles move the diaphragm?
What is differential diagnosis?
the process of differentiating between two or more conditions that share similar signs or symptoms.
What does the barro receptors detect?
What sensors does the respiratory center receive input from?
carotid and aortic, Chemoreceptors, and stretch receptors
What does the respiratory center do?
interprets the input and send a signal to the peripheral nerves to the respiratory muscles ( causes contraction and relaxation)
What are the chemoreceptors called?
central and peripheral
What does the chemoreceptors detect?
Where are chemoreceptors located?
great vessels and in brain stem
What chemoreceptors are part of the peripheral (PNS)?
oxygen and carbon dioxide
Where are peripheral chemoreceptors located?
carotid arteries and aortic arch
What does the peripheral chemoreceptors monitor?
Changes in PaO2 and PaCO2
What chemoreceptors are part of the central (CNS)?
hydrogen ion chemoreceptors
Where are central chemoreceptors located?
What does the central chemoreceptors monitor?
Changes in PaCO2 HCO3 ions and H Ions
What is the layer of cells in the brain protect the sudden shifts in ion concentration in the blood by an impermeable layer separating the blood from the brain?
blood brain barrier
How does CO2 move across the barrier?
True or false: central receptors are more responsive to CO2 changes than pH
true or false: Central receptors help the body compensate?
What are the three nerve groups that are important to the respiratory center and breathing?
Phrenic, intercostal, and abdominal
Where is the phrenic nerve located?
Where is the intercostal nerve located?
Where is the abdominal nerve located?
What neurotransmitter restricts the airway?
What neurotransmitter removes constriction from the airway?
What is the largest and most important inspiratory muscle?
What are the inspiratory muscles?
Diaphragm, External intercostal, Scalene, Sternocleidomastoid
What are the expiratory muscles?
Rectus abdominus, Internal and external oblique, and Transverse abdominus
When are abdominal muscles used?
only during forceful exhalation (cough)
Damage of any part of the respiratory center can lead to?
True or false: the respiratory center is one of the last neurological functions to be affected by head injury or stroke
sudden infant death syndrome
What indirect diseases can cause injury to the respiratory center?
Sedative/ narcotic receptors, Central sleep apnea, and SIDS
What is the most frequent cause of nerve damage that affects the respiratory pump?
What should be done if there is damage to C1-C5?
intubation, trach, long-term medical ventilation and paralysis
What should be done if there is damage to C6 and below?
Treatment depends of what muscles are involved
What is the viral illness that destroys the motor neurons of the spinal cord?
What treatments were created to treat combat polio?
Iron lung, and vaccine
What replaced of the iron lung?
What was the very first neuromuscular disease?
What does ALS stand for?
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
What is the other name for ALS?
Lou Gehrig disease
true or false: ALS does not affect the dendrites, and does not have thinness and weakness?
How old are patients that are diagnosed with ALS?
What does GBS stand for?
What is the progressive assending paralysis caused by an inflammatory destruction of the myelin sheath around peripheral nerves called?
Ground to brain
True or false: inflammation eventually resolves and myelin sheath regenerates?
Failure of a nerve to release ACH is known as?
Nerves that cannot release ACH is known as?
Destruction of ACH receptors on the muscle is known as?
True or false: disease of progressive descending muscle weakness due to destruction of ACH receptors on the muscles is also known as "mind to ground"
Agent orange is?
blocks the breakdown of ACH and keeps muscles from relaxing is known as?
Disorder of the muscles?
What is the most common muscle disease?
True or false patients with neuromuscular diseases often have shallow breathing, dyspnea, poor cough, and inability to clear secretions
If your patient is losing muscle weakness and you suspect GBS or MG what should you do?
Intubate and medically ventilate
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma is called?
true or false: pneumonia inflammation is never caused by an infection?
What are the infectious agents pneumonia is caused by?
bacterial, viruses and fungi
True or false: bacterial is the most common infectious agent
What are two ways pneumonia is contracted ?
community acquired and nosocomial
true or false: the distal airways are not the most sterile due to body natural defense
true or false: distal airways can become contaminated with pathogenic organisms
What are the systemic disorders that contribute to pneumonia?
diabetes, cirrhosis, renal failure, malnutrition, AIDS and cancer
Inhalation of organisms into the lung is known as?
Infections of the lung parenchyma cause?
outpouring of fluid, increase of inflammatory proteins, and increase WBC
What does Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas cause?
Lung abscess and permanent lung tissue damage
Staphylococcus and pseudomonas AKA?
Acute inflammation and consolidation leads to?
reduction in ventilation, V/Q mismatch, decreased lung compliance, and increased WOB
What does a CXR show with pneumonia?
increased density and air bronchograms
True or false: lungs can take up to 3 months to completely clear after bacterial pneumonia?
What does C&S stand for?
culture and sensitivity
What is lung infection caused by varicella zoster known as?
World Health Organization
True or false: TB is the number 1 cause of infectious disease-related deaths in the world?
What is the number one most common system of TB?
coughing up blood
What is the organism that causes TB ?
What is mycobacterium tuberculosis look like?
nonmotile, nonsporulating, rod-shaped, acid-fast bacillus (AFB)
True or false: TB can grow in the lung apices and spinal discs?
What is the TB that you get from ingestion of unpasteurized milk called?
True or false: TB is contracted by fomites?
Where do inhaled mycobacterium particles initially settle?
Necrosis of the mass ensues causing a cheesy material at the center known as?
The initial lung lesion or granuloma is known as?
Initial lung lesion plus affected hilarious lymph node is known as?
True or false: the initial stage of TB does not heal completely in the majority of infected individuals
True or false: after initial infection, reactivation can occur in up to 10% of individuals
true or false: extra pulmonary disease accounts for 15% of active diseases
Disseminated form of tb ?
What does miliary tb do?
spreads throughout the organisms
What does miliary TB look like ?
many granulomas throughout
What is the most common sign of TB?
What are some physical signs of TB?
Trachea may be deviated, changes in skin color, pleural effusion, swollen lymph nodes
What is normal WBC count?
What do lab findings in TB show?
increase in Bands
What does CXR of TB show?
Upper lobe infiltrates with cavitation, atelectasis, pleural effusions and empyema
What is the gold standard for TB?
What is the formal name for TB test?
Mantoux skin test
What are the CDC positive test reactions for TB?
5mm or more, 10mm or more, 15mm or more
True or false: all Tb patients must be in a negative pressure room and all health care workers must wear a N95 mask
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