Example: "A knave, a rascal; an eater of broken
meats; a base, proud, shallow, beggarly, three-
suited, hundred-pound, filthy, worsted-stocking
knave... and art nothing but the composition of a
knave, beggar, coward, pandar, and the son and
heir of a mongrel bitch . . . " (Shakespeare, King
Logical Fallacy (n)
Example: Slippery Slope: Based on premise that
if A happens, then eventually through series of
small steps, through B, C . . . X, Y, Z will happen,
too, basically equating A and Z. So, if we don't
want Z to occur, A must not be allowed to occur
Hasty Generalization: Based on insufficient or
biased evidence; rushing to conclusion before you
have all relevant facts.
Post hoc ergo propter hoc: Assumes that if 'A'
occurred after 'B' then 'B'-' must have caused 'A.'
Genetic Fallacy: Based on an argument that origins
of a person, idea, institute or theory determine its
character, nature or worth.
Begging the Claim: The conclusion that the writer
should prove is validated within the claim.
Circular Argument: This restates the argument
rather than actually proving it.
Either/or: This is a conclusion that oversimplifies
the argument by reducing it to only two sides or
Ad hominem: This is an attack on the character of
a person rather than his or her opinions or
Ad populum: Emotional appeal that speaks to
positive (such as patriotism, religion, democracy) or
Red Herring: Diversionary tactic that avoids key
issues, often by avoiding opposing arguments rather
than addressing them.
Straw Man: Oversimplifies an opponent's viewpoint
and then attacks that hollow argument.
Moral Equivalence: Compares minor misdeeds with
negative (such as terrorism or fascism) concepts,
rather than real issue at hand.