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psychologists who specialize in measuring psychological characteristics such as intelligence and personality

fluid intelligence

refers to the ability to perceive relations among stimuli

crystallized intelligence

comprises a person's culturally influenced accumulated knowledge and skills, including understanding printed language, comprehending language, and knowing vocabulary


musical intelligence is often shown by individuals with mental retardation who are extremely talented in one domain

emotional intelligence

a nontraditional aspect of intelligence in which the person's ability to use their own or others' emotions effectively for solving problems and living happily

analytic ability

involves analyzing problems and generating different solutions

creative ability

involves dealing adaptively with novel situations and problems

practical ability

involves knowing what solution or plan will actually work

mental age (MA)

this refers to the difficulty of the problems that children could solve correctly

intelligence quotient (IQ)

Terman described performance which was simply the ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100

dynamic testing

this measures a child's learning potential by having the child learn something new in the presence of the examiner and with the examiner's help

culture-fair intelligence tests

the problem of bias led to the development of these which test items based on experiences common to many cultures

stereotype threat

self-fulfilling prophecy in which knowledge of stereotypes leads to anxiety and reduced performance consistent with the original stereotype


traditionally refers to individuals with scores of 130 or greater on intelligence tests

convergent thinking

intelligence is associated with using information that is provided to determine a standard, correct answer

divergent thinking

creativity is associated with the aim is not a single correct answer (often there isn't one) but novel and unusal lines of thought

mental retardation

refers to substantially below-average intelligence and problems adapting to an environment that emerge before the age of 18

organic mental retardation

some cases of mental retardation---no more 25%--can be traced to a specific biological or physical problem

familial mental retardation

simply represents the lower ends of the normal distribution of intelligence

learning disability

a) have difficulty mastering an academic subject b) have normal intelligence c) are not suffering from other conditions that could explain poor performance, such as sensory impairment or inadequate instruction

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