20 terms

Chapter 8: Developmental Psychology

psychologists who specialize in measuring psychological characteristics such as intelligence and personality
fluid intelligence
refers to the ability to perceive relations among stimuli
crystallized intelligence
comprises a person's culturally influenced accumulated knowledge and skills, including understanding printed language, comprehending language, and knowing vocabulary
musical intelligence is often shown by individuals with mental retardation who are extremely talented in one domain
emotional intelligence
a nontraditional aspect of intelligence in which the person's ability to use their own or others' emotions effectively for solving problems and living happily
analytic ability
involves analyzing problems and generating different solutions
creative ability
involves dealing adaptively with novel situations and problems
practical ability
involves knowing what solution or plan will actually work
mental age (MA)
this refers to the difficulty of the problems that children could solve correctly
intelligence quotient (IQ)
Terman described performance which was simply the ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100
dynamic testing
this measures a child's learning potential by having the child learn something new in the presence of the examiner and with the examiner's help
culture-fair intelligence tests
the problem of bias led to the development of these which test items based on experiences common to many cultures
stereotype threat
self-fulfilling prophecy in which knowledge of stereotypes leads to anxiety and reduced performance consistent with the original stereotype
traditionally refers to individuals with scores of 130 or greater on intelligence tests
convergent thinking
intelligence is associated with using information that is provided to determine a standard, correct answer
divergent thinking
creativity is associated with the aim is not a single correct answer (often there isn't one) but novel and unusal lines of thought
mental retardation
refers to substantially below-average intelligence and problems adapting to an environment that emerge before the age of 18
organic mental retardation
some cases of mental retardation---no more 25%--can be traced to a specific biological or physical problem
familial mental retardation
simply represents the lower ends of the normal distribution of intelligence
learning disability
a) have difficulty mastering an academic subject b) have normal intelligence c) are not suffering from other conditions that could explain poor performance, such as sensory impairment or inadequate instruction