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Terms in this set (21)
Review and be familiar with the major social determinants of health.
Social determinants cause things that cause illness (ie income causes poor living conditions, causing sickness)
Social gradient (lower LE as you move down the social ladder)
Work (autonomy at work)
Understand the matching law.
a behavioral principle that states that behavior occurs in proportion to reinforcement available for each behavior
Review and be familiar with the methodology covered in this course about how to properly select a theory.
With a comprehensive understanding of the functions of the target behavior, we then select the model or theory that includes constructs that align most closely with the functions of the behavior.
What is vicarious learning and where did it originate?
We learn by observing (indirect sources) others
originated from Albert Bandura
What did basic research of children and BOBO dolls teach Albert Bandura?
Vicarious learning is a thing. When children observed adults being aggressive, they themselves were more aggressive
Attitudes toward behavior
-Behavioral beliefs (belief that an outcome will happen)
-Outcome evaluation (how valuable is the outcome?)
Subjective norms (what you think others believe you should do)
-Normative belief (do they think you should or should not do it)
-Motivation to comply (how motivated are you to listen to them?)
Perceived behavioral control
-Modifying variables (personal factors that affect adoption of new behavior)
-Cues to action (environmental tools to help increase behavior... ex: sticky notes on mirror)
1. Stages of behavior change
2. Decisional balance (weighing pros and cons of changing)
3. Self-efficacy (confidence)
Levels: (core→ moving out)
intrapersonal (attitudes, ability)(core)
Interpersonal (mother-in-law's opinion, husband's wishes)
Organizational (employment status, place to store breastmilk...)
Community (societal norms, baby friendly hospitals)
Policy(time mandated for breastfeeding? Maternity leave?)
What is a contingency?
Consequences for taking steps in a particular direction
Understand the difference between topography and function.
Topography: a term we use to describe how behavior looks
Function: refers to the reason for the behavior, or the cause
Why is punishment a less effective behavior change strategy?
It doesn't teach a new behavior and function is not satisfied
According to the TRA/TPB, what is the major predictor of behavior?
Understand the difference between a model and a theory—which is bigger?
Theory: a theory is the summation of many observations about behavior change. THEORY IS BIGGER
Model: a model is comprised of subsets of constructs that make up a theory
What are the three types of theories we've discussed in class?
Intrapersonal (psychological in nature)
Interpersonal (immediate social environment)
Ecological or community level (focus mostly on environmental determinants of behavior and tend to be generic in nature)
What is reciprocal determinism
states that a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment
What are the effects on behavior of punishment and reinforcement, e.g., what happens to future rates of and the duration of behavior change?
Reinforcement increases behavior
Punishment decreases behavior
What is the difference between the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior?
The only difference between the two theories is that the TPB includes behavioral control as an additional determinant of intentions and behavior
Understand when the major TTM processes are most effective, i.e., during which stages are X, Y, and Z processes most effective.
-Important in contemplation, preparation, and action stages
-Contemplation and preparation
-Important in contemplation, preparation, and action
-Important in preparation, action, and maintenance stages
-Important in action and maintenance stages
-important in action and maintenance stages
Understand the different types of social capital and examples of each.
Bridging: social ties that attempt to cut across differences including race, gender, disability, class, religion...
Bonding: links people together who are like themselves (special interest groups, neighborhood associations, hobby clubs...)
Be familiar with the definition of social capital and how we might measure it.
Emphasizes social support and public involvement
"You help us today, and we will help you tomorrow" (not transfer of money, transfer of social services)
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Research suggests that participation in sports reflects geographic location and economic conditions. For instance, basketball is an urban game that does not require a lot of money to play. All one needs is a ball and a place to shoot. Conduct research on other major sports – football, baseball, hockey, skiing, tennis, and golf. Try to determine where and by whom these sports tend to be played. How much does it cost an individual who is not professional to play these sports? Share your results with the class.
Match the following examples with the major theoretical perspective: functionalism (F), conflict theory (C), symbolic interactionism (SI). a. fathers “giving away” brides b. having children c. development of self concept d. newly married partners adjusting to each other e. child abuse f. social class being passed from one generation to another.
You read about positive and negative correlations. Give two examples each of relationships that you suspect may be positive and negative correlations. For example, you may propose that an increase in income is positively correlated to increased dining out.