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Metabolism Module Session 2 Lecture 1 Cell Metabolism
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Terms in this set (55)
What are the two forms of chemicals in the blood?
Waste and Nutrients
How is the NORMAL blood concentrations of nutrients and waste?
What are the PHYSIOLOGICAL changes in the concentration of Nutrients and Waste in the blood? (6)
1. After Meals 2. During Fasting 3. Starvation 4. Exercise 5. Pregnancy 6. Stress
What are PATHOLOGICAL where changes to the concentrations of nutrients and wastes in the blood are seen? (6)
1. Diabetes 2. Atherosclerosis 3. Obesity 4. Malnutrition 5. Shock 6. Certain Enzyme Deficiency States
what are the clinically important cell nutrients and waste products?
GATE-C-FLUT گاتن سی فلووت Glucose, Amino Acids, Triacylglycerols, NH3, Cholesterol, Fatty Acids, Lactic Acid, Urea, Total CO2
what are the origins of cell nutrients?
the diet + precursor molecules made by the body + release from storage
What are cell nutrients synthesized from? are they essential?
precursors, which are non-essential
what happens to cell nutrients in the body? (5)
1. Degradation to release energy 2. Synthesis of cell component 3. Storage 4. Interconversion to other nutrients 5. Excretion
What is the definition of Cell Metabolism?
the highly integrated network of chemical reactions that occur within cells.
How can the Metabolic Network be Described?
using metabolic maps
Do all metabolic pathways happen in all cells?
some pathways occur in all cells whilst others are confined to cells with specific functions.
Cells metabolize nutrients to provide:
Energy. (ATP) Building Blocks for : Growth, Maintainance, Repair, and division of cells Organic Precursors for Interconversion (Acetyl CoA) Biosynthetic reducing the power used in synthesis (NADPH) ATP-BBforGMRD-CoA-NADPH
Draw a simple overview of metabolism.
What is redox reactions? (oxidation and reduction)
the transfer of electrons
what is oxidation? who gets oxidized?
loss an electron, the reducing agent
what is reduction? who gets reduced?
gain of an electron, oxidizing agent
What happens to Hydrogen Number in Oxidation? Reduction?
Hydrogen is removed in oxidation and gained in reduction.
what happens to NADH and FMN during the overall oxidation-reduction reaction?
NADH combines with a Proton and gets oxidixed and only NAD+ is remaining while FMN gets reduced and it gains two protons making it FMNH2
describe cell respiration.
NADH and FAD2H are oxidized in the electron transport chain and it will ultimately reduce oxygen to water.
what happens to the free energy released during the Electron transport chain?
it's used to make ATP + heat
which reactions use NADH and FAD2H? give an example.
the reactions in which the substrate is reduced. the reducction of Pyruvic acid to Lactic acid
what is the difference between endergonic and exergonic reactions?
the first one takes in energy and the second one releases energy.
what is the energy change in a reaction called?
enhalpy change DELTA H
when is enthalpy change negative, when is it positive?
negative when release postive when absorb
is all released energy from an exergonic reaction available to do work? why?
no because some of the energy may appear in the form of a decrease. مەبەستی لەوەیە لە کارلێکێکی گەرمیدەردا، ڕاستە بە گشتی گەرمی ئەدات بەڵام کۆمەڵە بەشێکی کارلێکەکە گەرمی دەمژن.
what is entropy? when is it positive, when is it negative?
entropy, DELTA S, is the measure of disorder, positive when disorder increases and vice versa
what is free energy?
sometimes called Gibbs free energy, free energy is the energy released in an exergonic reaction that is available to do work.
what is the gibbs free energy equation?
DELTA G = DELTA H - T DELTA S
what is the unit of temperature in gibbs free energy equation?
what is the role of ATP and ADP?
coupling the free enrgy released during the catabolism of fuel molecules to the energy required for cellular activities
what is the difference between ATP and ADP?
the number of covalently bonded phosphate groups
how is ATP regenerated from ADP?
using the free energy from the catabolism of fuel molecules
is ATP an energy carrier or energy storage?
when are catabolic pathaways activated?
when [ATP] decreases and [ADP/AMP] increases
when are anabolic pathaways activated?
when the levels of ATP rise
what are the high energy signals?
ATP NADH NADPH FAD2H
what are the low energy signals?
ADP AMP NAD+ NADP+ FAD
what is the meaning of high energy of hydrolyss?
large negative delta G
what are 4 phosphorylated compounds that have high energy of hydrolysis? what do they turn into? how much energy does it give?
Phospoenolpyruvate -> pyruvate + Pi , -62 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate -> 3-phosphoglycerate +Pi , -49 Creatine Phosphate -> creatine + Pi , -43 ATP -> ADP + Pi, -31
how can a thermodynamicallly spontaneous phosphoryl-group transfer occur?
in a downward direction
what are two phosphoryl-group transfer reactions that are important for the synthesis of ATP from ADP during glycolysis? what is this called?
Phosphoenolpyruvate + ADP -> ATP + Pyruvate 1,3-bisphosphateglycerate + ADP -> ATP + 3-phosphoglycerate this is called substrate level phosphorylation
where is the reaction of creatinephosphate and ADP reversible?
in the muscles
how is creatinine made?
by non-enzyamtic chemical changes of creatine and creatine phosphate
what is the funciton of creatinine?
no function, it is readily excreted via the kidneys
what is the rate of production of creatinine proportional to?
to the concentration of creatine in muscle and this is reated to skeletal muscle mass
what can the daily excresion of creatinine indicate?
skeletal muscle mass
what does increased excretion of creatinene indicate?
active muscle wasting
what can the measurements of blood and urine concentrations of creatinine tell us?
what is the difference between essential and non-essential compounds?
non-essential are produced by the body itself essential needs to be obtained from diet
What cells produce cholestrol?
all forms of cells
what is the function of ketone bodies? where are they produced?
they give energy to the brain during starvation and they are produced in the liver
when a substance has the hydrogen, is it in the reduced state or oxidized state?
why is NADPH necessary?
for the synthesis of fatty acid cholesterol
what is the highest energy compound in the body?
what enzyme functions in the interconversion between creatine and creatine phosphate?
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