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Unit 4-Urinary System
Terms in this set (70)
What does the Urinary System Anatomy consist of(6)?
2 Kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 urinary bladder and 1 urethra
Urinary System Anatomy is also called the...
Urinary System Anatomy remove _____ from the blood and maintain _____ and _____ balance
waste, fluid, and electrolyte
Kidney-Retroperitoneal at a slight anterior angle and a ____ degree oblique
Kidney-Occupy the space between which vertebrae...
T12 - L3
The right kidney sits lower due to location of the...
The Kidney may move as much as __ inch(es) during respiration and as much as ___ inch(es) from supine to upright
the Kidney's normal excretion of _____ liters of urine/day
1 to 2
Renal __________: outer covering
Renal ________: second layer with renal columns
Renal ________: 8 to 15 pyramids that drain into the calyx system
Renal _______: fat filled space surrounding renal pelvis and vessels
Hilum: slit on medial border for transmission of(4)...
blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves, and ureter
cup-shaped stems arising at the sides of the papilla on each pyramid
Calyces: major and minor
_________calyces: beginning branches unite to form major
_________calyces: unite to form renal pelvis
_______ _______ funnels through the hilum and becomes the ureter at the ureteropelvic junction
The functional unit of the kidney
parenchyma or nephron
• one of the two most common sites for a stone to become lodged
The renal corpuscle is made up of what 2 parts?
1. Glomerular capsule.
2. Glomerulus: blood capillaries
The ____________of is made up of blood capillaries and serves as a filter for blood
The renal tubule is made up of these three parts. What are they?
1. Proximal convoluted tubule.
2. Nephron loop (loop of Henle).
3. Distal convoluted tubule
What are the 2 parts of the Nephron
1. Renal corpuscle.
2. Renal tubule.
The _____ _____ unites with other collecting ducts within the pyramid to drain into the minor then the major calyx
The Ureter is __ to __ inches long
10 to 12
The Ureter convey urine from Kidney to bladder by means of ____________.
The Ureter Extend from renal Pelvis to the ______ _______(_ _ _ ). (1st or 2nd) most common site for kidney stone to become lodged
Ureterovesicular Junction (UVJ), 2nd
The ____________ ____________is a reservoir for urine
Urinary Bladder- ________ movable: only held in position by folds of peritoneum
Adult bladder can hold up to _______ of fluid, but the urge for micturition is felt at about _______
Urinary Bladder-The two UVJs and the urethra form the _________.
The bladder lining has folds (rugae), except over the area of the _______. In the normal bladder, the rugae disappear when the bladder is ________.
Urethra1 is ___ inches long in females, ____ to ____ inches long in males
½ inches, 7 to 8 inches
The urethra passes ______ from bladder to the outside of the body
The Adrenal Glands produces and secretes(4)
adrenaline (epinephrine), norepinephrine, dopamine and corticol hormones
________ is a general term for radiographic investigation of the renal drainage and collecting system which requires injection of iodinated contrast material.
2) Retrograde method. Also called the instrumental method
The Antegrade method is made up of(2)
• VP, IVU, or excretory urography.
• Percutaneous method.
Clinical Indications for a IVP or a IVU... (9) (good luck!)
• Polycystic Kidney.
• Urinary Tract Infection.
• Kidney stone.
• Renal/bladder CA.
• Renal Hypertension.
• Anatomic Anomoly.
• Surgical planning
___________: contrast enters the body in the normal direction of bloodflow.
-___________contrast material is introduced intravenously
Contrast is conveyed through the bloodstream to the kidney and is removed from the blood during the ___________ ___________ _________
normal filtration process.
For an unobstructed view of the urinary tract, the bowel should be free of ______ and ______material.
gas and solid material.
Patient preparation for the urinary tract include(4)
1.Low-residue diet given for 1-2 days prior.
2.Laxative given the evening prior.
3. A light meal on the evening prior to the exam.
4.NO FOOD for 12 hours prior, only water.
Are Bowel preps are done on infants and children? Y/N
Patients with Diabetes mellitus, multiple myeloma or high uric acid levels should be well _______ before a urogram
Diabetics taking Glucophage (metformin) must stop using this medication at least ______ hours prior to the exam, and not resume its use for ______ hours afterwards.
Contraindications & Considerations for the urinary tract(6)
-Allergy to Iodinated Contrast.
-Untreated Renal Failure.
-Sickle cell disease.
Patients often undergo blood test prior to exam to assess their kidney function. What are the normal ranges for the following tests?
-BUN (normal 8-25 mg/dl).
-Creatinine (normal: 0.6-1.2 mg/dl; 1.5 is normal upper limit).
-GFR (Glomerular filtration rate) (normal: 120 to 125 mL/ min. values under 90 = possible renal compromise)
In IVP/IVU Procedures, patients can be asked to _________ their bladder
Compression bands sometimes applied to patient's abdomen at the level of the _______to increase pressure and visualization of the _________.
IVP/IVU- Intravenous access is obtained and __ __- _____ ml iodinated contrast agent is administered
30- 100 ml
IVP/IVU-Contrast media reactions are rare, but usually occur between __ and ____ minutes post injection, and they can be life threatening
5 and 30 minutes
When should you leave a patient alone after iodinated contrast media adminstration?
Contrast Media Reactions-Common Response(2):
1. warm flush
2. mild metallic taste
Contrast Media Reactions-Mild(6)
No CD or VHS
Contrast Media Reactions-Moderate(9)
BuTt FaiL, PHat PHat D
3. facial edema
4. laryngeal edema
7. persistent vomiting
Contrast Media Reactions-Severe(7)
PHALSS to his Death
1. Pulmonary edema
3. Acute bronchospasm
4. Life-threatening arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia)
Contrast Media Reactions-Nearly all life-threatening reactions will occur within the first ____ minutes after injection
Immediately after injection of contrast, a KUB with up to 4 tomograms are done during the "blush" stage.
Tomograms are performed primarily to evaluate ________ ________
Usually a __ minute and ___ minute KUB are done.
5 minute and 10 minute
Bilateral oblique KUBs are obtained between the ____ and ____ minute mark
10 and 15 minute
The Side ________ kidney is perpendicular to IR
RPO urogram-When positioned correctly, both kidneys are seen without superimposition over the....
In a IVP a 20 to 30 minute KUB is then obtained to show a....
In a IVP, thee bladder should be _______ and ___________ on top. If not, imaging may need to continue for several minutes.
full and rounded
congenital disorder in which the kidneys are fused across the abdomen. aka: super kidney or renal fusion. Occurs in 1 out of 400 people
distention and dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces usually caused by obstruction. Can be a stone, cyst, or a tumor
small, hard mineral deposits that form inside the kidney
A _________ is a calcified pelvic vein that can often resemble a kidney stone
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