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What is one characteristic that separates chordates from all other animals?
dorsal, hollow nerve cord
Which of these are characteristics of all chordates during at least a portion of their development?
a dorsal, hollow nerve cord pharyngeal clefts, post-anal tail
Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials
have some embryonic development outside the mother's uterus
Which extant chordate group is postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?
As humans diverged from other primates, which of the following appeared first?
a partial erect stance
Based on current evidence, which of the following statements best describes the evolution of humans?
humans and apes disverged from a common ancestor about 5-10 millions years ago
The common ancestor of all these chordate groups except the ________ probably had paired appendages
The earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are associated with which function?
The exoskeletons of marine arthropods are made of calcified ________, and the endoskeletons of vertebrates are mostly composed of calcified ________.
According to one hypothesis, the jaws of vertebrates were derived by the modification of
skeletal rods that had supported pharyngeal (gill) slits.
To which of these are the scales of chondrichthyans most closely related in a structural sense?
Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between sharks and fishes?
they have a lateral line that is sensitive to changesin water pressure
Which of these would a paleontologist be most likely to do in order to determine whether a fossil represents a reptile or a mammal?
Examine the teeth
Structures that are made of keratin include which of the following?
avian feathers reptilian scales mammalian hair
Examination of the fossils of Archaeopteryx reveals that, in common with extant birds, it had
Why is the discovery of the fossil Archaeopteryx significant? It supports the
phylogenetic relatedness of birds and reptiles
During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures arose?
1. amniotic egg
2. paired fins
4. swim bladder
5. four-chambered heart
Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough? It
allows incubation of eggs in aterrestrial environment
Which of these characteristics added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments?
the amionic egg
Which is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have foramina magna centrally positioned in the base of the cranium?
Which is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have fingernails instead of claws?
Which is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have fully opposable thumbs?
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