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Terms in this set (79)
eggs and sperm cells
all chromosomes present (46 pairs)
half of total chromosomes (23 pairs)
pairs of chromosomes ~ same genes in different variations
control center of cell
nuclear envelope, chromatin, nucleolus
DNA + histones 'looser configuration'
assemble ribosomal subunits
2 centrioles -> mitotic spindle
chromatin is composed of
30% DNA, 60% histone proteins, 10% RNA
"beads on a string"
Has no membrane
two centrioles found within one
made up of triplets of microtubules
makes Mitotic spindle formation
Centrosomes and centrioles
shape of mitotic spindle
large (25nm) hollow tubes, subunit tubulin
dynamic, determines shape of the cell
Organelles move along them by using
results in two identical daughter cells (diploids)
duplication happens prior to
growth and DNA phase
Growth and final preparations for division
Mitotic Phase (M)
Mitosis and cytokinesis
Stages of Mitosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, telophase
Normal metabolic activities, DNA as chromatin, nuclear envelope and nucleolus visible, centrosomes with two centrioles
_____ and ___________ is duplicated during interphase before mitosis begins
DNA and Centrosomes
First Phase/ Early phase
chromatin starts to condense to chromosomes
has 2 sister chromatids held together by centromere
identical/exact copies that split during mitosis, linked by centromere
identical copies of a chromosomes
holds sister chromatids together
mitotic spindles form, nuclear envelope gone, microtubules attach by way of kinetochores to centromere of each chromosomes
chromosomes line up singly at metaphase plate, centrosomes at opposite poles
centromere split, daughter chromosomes (formerly sister chromatids) move to poles
separates sister chromatid
Telophase + Cytokinesis
Chromosomes stop moving and uncoil, nuclear envelope reforms, nucleoli appear, cleavage furrow clearly visible (cytokinesis), mitotic spindles disassemble.
telophase + Cytokinesis
prophase 1, metaphase, anaphase 1
homologous chromosomes for tetrads through synapsis, crossing Chiasmata 9can trade pieces between homologous pairs creating genetic variability. (2 versions of one chromosome to 4 variations).
tetrads align at M. plate, orientated random.
Tetrads separates homologous chromosomes
uses synapsis and crossing over
NO DNA replication
chromosomes line up singly at metaphase and sister chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes, results in 4 haploid cells
Occurs in the testes and epididymis
the site where sperm are made
process of forming male gametes in testes and epididymis
Three main events of spermatogenesis
mitosis of spermatogonia, meiosis of spermatocytes to spermatids, spermiogenesis
diploid cells continually going through mitosis to produce cells that go through meiosis
Mitosis and meiosis of sperm occurs
in the testes
production of male gametes (in the epididymis)
Hallmark of sexual maturity
begins and puberty
Sperm productions starts at __________ of testes and moves into the __________
outer edge; lumen
Spermatogenesis prior to puberty/Mitosis of spermatogonia
Cells move to the lumen and exit to the epididymis. 2 spermatogonia diploids provide the cells that go through meiosis. Spermatogonia go through mitosis and produces two diploid daughter cells.
prior to puberty: Type A daughter cells remain
Spermatogenesis after puberty/Mitosis of spermatogonia
produces two cell types: typer A daughter cell: remains a spermatogonium; Type B daughter cell: becomes primary spermatocyte and enters meiosis.
Male "Mother Cell"
Meiosis of primary spermatocytes
type b cell enters meiosis primary spermatocyte, at end of meiosis i: two secondary spermatocytes haploid (n)
B cells through the first stage of meiosis 1
homologues chromosomes divide and make two secondary spermatocytes
secondary spermatocytes through meiosis 2
make 4 haploids called spermatids
Primary spermatocytes to spermatids
about 70 days
Each secondary spermatocytes
undergoes meiosis 2 to form 2 early spermatids, results in 4 haploid spermatids 9not fully matures/nonmotile0
maturation of spermatid in the epididymis (24 days) to become spermatozoa
what happens in the epididymis
head is made, condenses down and is made small (contains genetic material and acrosome).
how is mitochondria used by sperm
used to move flagellum (not a big nutrient supply, requires but doesn't not store nutrients)
flagellum functions for
movement of sperm
Spermiogenesis is a part of spermatogenesis that occurs in the epididymis
70 days in testes and 24 days in the epididymis
how many sperm are produced daily?
290 million sperm
how may sperm are produces each second?
how many sperm are produced in a life time
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