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AP Human Unit 5
Terms in this set (47)
The cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions.
Geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance from the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support.
Gathered closely together in a group.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Commercial Agriculture (monocropping or monoculture)
The process of growing food for the purpose of selling it as a business venture.
A linked system of processes that gather resources, convert them into goods, package them for distribution, disperse them, and sell them on the market
Community-supported agriculture (CSA)
A system in which consumers pay farmers in advance for a share of their yield, usually in the form of weekly deliveries of produce.
The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Diffusion of Agriculture
The spread of an idea (such as a method of farming or a certain crop) from it's hearth to new locations.
Distributed or spread over a considerable extent.
Clearing natural swamp areas to create fields.
Economies of Scale
Factors that cause a producer's average cost per unit to fall as output rises.
Extensive farming practices
An agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labor, fertilizers, and capital, relative to the land area being farmed.
Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates.
Urban and rural low-income areas with limited access to affordable and nutritious foods.
The condition in which people live with chronic hunger and malnutrition.
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
Crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods.
Global supply chains/food distribution
Networks that can span across multiple continents and countries for the purpose of sourcing and supplying goods and services.
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Hearths of Domestication
The origins of domesticated plants and/or animals.
Indus River Valley
A valley and early civilization along the Indus River, one of the longest rivers in the world.
Intensive farming practices
A type of agriculture, both of crop plants and of animals, with higher levels of input and output per unit of agricultural land area.
The process of supplying water to areas of land to make them suitable for growing crops.
Straight pattern or a pattern along straight lines.
Local-food movements - Farm to Table
Movements aimed to connect food producers and consumers in the same geographic region, to develop more self-reliant and resilient food networks; improve local economies; or to affect the health, environment, community, or society of a particular place.
Settlement pattern in southern Quebec and some other areas of Canada where individual lots tend to be long and narrow and extend back from major rivers or roads.
The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually.
A climate marked by warm, dry summers and cool, rainy winters.
Metes and bounds
A method of land description which involves identifying distances and directions and makes use of both the physical boundaries and measurements of the land.
A method of farming that does not use artificial means such as synthetic pesticides and herbicides, antibiotics, and bioengineering.
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Rural settlement patterns
Farms, villages, or towns that have any of the following patterns- dispersed, clustered, or linear.
Rural survey methods
How farmers divided the rural land.
Second Agricultural Revolution
Dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agricultural Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm products.
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Slash and burn
A farming method involving the cutting of trees, then burning them to provide ash-enriched soil for the planting of crops.
In arid regions, water evaporates leaving salts behind. (ex. Fertile crescent, southwestern US)
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.
A new form of agriculture in Aksum, in which stepped ridges constructed on mountain slopes help retain water and reduce erosion.
Township and range
A rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U.S. interior.
The growing of fruits, herbs, and vegetables and raising animals in towns and cities, a process that is accompanied by many other activities such as processing and distributing food, collecting and reusing food waste.
Value-added specialty crops
Crops that grow in value when made into a certain product.
Von Thünen model
A model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market.
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