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Chapter 10 The Expression of Genetic Information via Genes I: Transcription and Translation
Terms in this set (105)
We can broadly define gene as a unit of
RNA that contains the information to specify a polypeptide with a particular amino acid sequence; abbreviated mRNA function is used to carry information form the DNA to cellular components called ribosomes.
The use of a gene sequence to make a copy of RNA.
The process of synthesizing a specific polypeptide on a ribosome.(using information with in mRNA)
A blueprint of the characteristics of every organism, contain the information to produce an organism, allows it interact with its environment, each protein-encoding sorts the information for the production of polypeptide which them becomes a unit with a functional protein. The activities of the proteins largely determine the structure and function. Characteristics of an organism are rooted in the activities of cellular proteins.
What is the function of mRNA?
It carries information from DNA to ribosomes.
The characteristics of an organism are rooted in the activities of cellular____________ encoded by genes.
Transcription occurs in three stages...
called initiation, elongation, and termination, during which various proteins interact with DNA sequences.
The genes of all species have promoters, and the transcription process occurs in the stages of initiation, elongation, and termination. The transcription of eukaryotic genes tends...
to involve a greater complexity of protein components that does the transcription of bacteria genes.
In a gene, a site a called a promoter specifies where transcription begins. A terminator specifies where transcription...
In bacteria the initiation of transcription begins when sigma factor binds ...
to RNA polymerase and to promoter.
During elongation, synthesis of an RNA transcript occurs via base pairing of nucleotides to the template strand of DNA as RNA polymerase slides along the DNA. RNA polymerase and the RNA ...
transcript dissociate from DNA as the terminator.
In transcription an _________ sequence is copied into an ____________ sequence.
A gene is a unit of nucleotide sequences that enables a segment of DNA to be transcribed into _________ which can then be translated to produce a polypeptide.
During the process of _____________, an RNA copy of a gene is produced.
During the process of ______________, an RNA copy of a gene is produced.
Messenger RNA carries information from the DNA to cellular components called________________, which play a key role in the synthesis of polypeptides.
In the process of _________________, a DNA sequence is copied into an RNA sequence.
pre-mRnas undergo certain modifications before they exit the nucleus as functionally active_________________
mature mRNAs, or simply mRNAs
mature mRNAs of eukaryotes have a modified form of guanine covalently attached at the 5' end, an event know as
In animals and flowering plants, most protein-encoding genes have one or more .....
Splicing is less frequent among unicellular...
eukaryotic species, such as yeast, but is a widespread phenomenon among more complex eukaryotes.
In eukaryotes, transcription produces a pre-mRNA that is spliced given a 5' cap and...
a poly A tail.
During RNA splicing, intervening sequences called introns are removed from...
eukaryotic pre-mRNA by a spliceosome.
In eukaryotes, transcription initially produces a longer RNA molecule called the_____________. This longer mRNA molecule is spliced, capped, and polyadenylated prior to translation.
At the molecular level, a gene is an organized unit of ______ sequences that can be transcribed into RNA.
The stages of transcription are called:
initiation, elongation and termination
How is the 5' end of a eukaryotic mRNA modified?
A cap is added to it.
The average human gene has about__________ introns.
Transcription is similar in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, except that_____________ use more proteins.
The synthesis of________________ using information within the mRNA is called translation.
What RNA produced in eukaryotic transcription is the longest?
The ability of nRNA to be translated into an amino acid sequence of polypeptide relies on the genetic code, which specifies the relationship between the sequence of bases in the mRNA and...
the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.
a site that is located near the 5' end of an mRNA and provides a location for the ribosome to bind to the mRNA.
To translate a nucleotide sequence of mRNA into an amino acid sequence, recognition occurs between mRNA and...
transfer RNA(tRNA) molecules. Transfer RNA, which is described in, function as the translator or intermediary, between an mRNA codon and an amino acid.
Nirenberg and Leder's use of triplet binding to decipher the...
Based on the genetic code, each of the 64 codons specifies a start codon(AUG, which specifies methionine), other amino acids, or a...
stop codon(UAA, UAG, or UGA)
What is the purpose of the genetic code?
It specifies the relationship between mRNA and polypeptide sequences.
A gene is a unit of nucleotide sequences that enables a segment of DNA to be transcribed into______ which can then be translated to produce a polypeptide.
The ribosome binds to the mRNA at the ribosome-binding site, which is found near the___________ end of the mRNA.
Which end of a eukaryotic mRNA is processed by the addition of a modified guanine cap?
What is true of introns?
A gene may have multiple introns.
Introns are found in many eukaryotic genes.
Polypeptides are made from mRNA during
The genetic code specifies the relationship between the sequence of nucleotides in ______ and the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.
The ribosomal-binding site is located near the
5' end of the mRNA
What is the function of the anticodon of a tRNA molecule?
It binds to a codon on an mRNA molecule.
Nirenberg and Leder deciphered the genetic code by studying the ability of mRNA triplets to bind to tRNAs carrying radiolabeled amino acids. According to the data shown here, which mRNA triplets specify the amino acid threonine?
A cell must make many different components, including mRNAs, tRNAs, ribosomes , and translation factors, in order...
to synthesize polypeptides.
The tRNAs of all species share common features that are...
*The two dimensional structure of a tRNA resembles a cloverleaf. The structure has three stem-loops and a fourth stem with a 3' single-stranded region.
*The anticodon is located in the middle loop.
*The 3' single-stranded region is the amino acid attachment site.
*The three-dimensional structure of tRNA molecules involves additional folding of the secondary structure,
An enzyme that catalyzes the attachment of amino acids to tRNA molecules.
Translation takes place in the...
Two subunits made of ribosomal RNA and proteins; can be free in cytosol or bound to ER
Translation requires mRNA, charged tRNAs, ribosomes, and...
many translation factors.
The enzyme aminoacyl-tRNA synthase attaches the correct amino acid to a tRNA molecule, producing a...
Ribosomes have three sites, termed the A, P and E sites, which are location for the binding and release of...
The gene that encodes the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) has been used to determine...
evolutionary relationships among different species.
The process of translation occurs in three stages called...
initiation, elongation, and termination.
a complex is formed between an mRNA, the first tRNA and the ribosomal subunits.
A protein that facilitates the interactions among mRNA, the first tRNA, and the ribosomal subunits during the initiation stage of translation. (Assembly requires an input of energy (GTP) is hydrolyzed by certain initiation factors to provide the necessary energy/
involves the covalent bonding of amino acids to each other, one at a time, to produce a polypeptide.
The three step codons, UAA, UAG, and UGA, are recognized by a protein. Elongation continues until a stop codon moves into the A site of a ribosome.
The components mRNA, tRNA, ribosomes, and translation factors must be made by a cell so that_______ can be synthesized.
What part of a tRNA binds to the codon of a messenger RNA molecule?
The structural features common to all transfer RNAs include a stem-loop containing a(n)______________ thas is complmentary to the codon on mRNA and an acceptor stem where a______________ _______________.
anticodon, amino, acid
The enzymes that catalyze the attachment of amino acids to tRNA molecules are known as aminoacyl-tRNA _____________.
Which of the following components are necessary for translation?
What is the site of translation?
What structural features are common to all tRNAs?
Cloverleaf pattern with three stem-loops
Acceptor stem for amino acid attachment
Amino acids are attached to tRNA molecules with the help of enzymes called
Translation occurs on structures called
What molecules must assemble during the initiation stage of translation?
the first tRNA
Identify the stage of translation in which polypeptide synthesis occurs.
During translation, the stop codons are recognized by a protein called a(n)
During the initiation phase of translation, a complex is formed between an mRNA molecule, the first _____________, and the _______________ subunits.
In the process of protein synthesis, what recognizes the three stop codons?
A protein called release factor
Suppose that, instead of a single triplet RNA, Nirenberg and Leder had used a mixture of RNAs consisting of the triplets AAA and GAA. Which aminoacyl-tRNAs would have been bound by the ribosomes?
Both Lysine (Lys) and Glutamic acid (Glu)
A difference between bacterial and eukaryotic translation is
modifications to the 5' end of mRNA help it to bind to ribosomes only in eukaryotes.
There is only one codon, 5'-UGG-3', for the amino acid tryptophan (trp), therefore the anticodon in the tRNA for tryptophan must have the sequence ...
A tRNA with anticodon 3'-GGG'-5' would be attached to the amino acid...
The carboxyl terminus of a polypeptide will contain amino acids whose codons are closer to the___end of the mRNA.
A tRNA with anticodon 3'-UAC-5' would be attached to the amino acid...
The amino terminus of a polypeptide will contain amino acids whose codons are closer to the_____end of the mRNA.
Part of a gene sequence on the DNA reads 5'-ATGCGC-3'. The mRNA will therefore read _______________ in that region.
The template strand of a gene includes the sequence 3'-AGT-5'. The mRNA will therefore have the sequence______________in the same position.
How does the guanosine in the 5' guanosine cap differ from guanosine that is used the body of the mRNA?
The guanosine in the cap attaches to the nucleic acid via a triphosphate, while normal guanosine attaches via a monophosphate.
Below is an alignment of DNA sequences from the same locus in 5 different species. From this information, which of the following statements is TRUE?
Species 2 and 3 are probably the most closely related because they are the most similar.
RNA processing does NOT involve
Removal of exons
A characteristic shared by eukaryotic mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomal RNA is
they are all transcribed from DNA.
Nirenberg and Leder used an "in vitro translation system." Which of the following would have been unnecessary for their experiments to have worked?
Shortly after RNA polymerase begins to transcribe a pre-mRNA, a ____________ is added.
In the nucleus, both 5' and 3' modifications to mRNA are important for ____________ .
export of the mRNA to the cytosol
In the cytosol, the 5' cap is recognized by proteins that enable the mRNA to be ____________ .
A mature mRNA will have a ____________ added.
poly A tail
In the cytosol, the poly A tail is important for ____________ of the mRNA.
Which of the following statements about the segment of DNA below is TRUE?5'-CTATGGGCCATTTTTTAACGGGAGGCCCATGAA-3'3'-GATACCCGGTAAAAAATTGCCCTCCGGGTACTT-5'
There are two possible transcripts that are transcribed on opposite strands of the helix.
How does a cell know which sequences to remove from the pre-mRNA transcript as introns?
Complementary sequences in the snRNA bind to the splice sites in the primary transcript.
Structural RNA that links an amino acid to an anticodon:
Contains information to be translated (as codons):
Forms part of the enzyme that drives translation:
Options: Ribosomal RNA, Gene, mRNA, Ribosomal Protein, tRNA
3.ribosomal RNA, Ribosomal protein
An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase has a mutation such that it binds the-tRNA with the anticodon 3' GCA 5' and attaches the amino acid glycine to its 3' end. What consequence will this have on translation?
Proteins will have the amino acid arginine substituted with glycine, since the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase is incorrectly pairing the amino acid to its-tRNA.
Which type of RNA is involved in protein synthesis?
mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
How can the three-dimensional structure of a tRNA molecule be described?
Transcription-Enzyme: RNA polymerase
Transcription-Termination: Terminator Sequence
Translation-Initiation: Start Codon
Translation-Termination: Stop Codon
The genetic code is degenerate. That means
a particular amino acid can be specified by more than one codon.
Nirenberg and Leder used an "in vitro translation system." Which of the following MUST be present in order for their experiments to work?
How does a eukaryotic ribosome initially bind to the mRNA?
The small subunit binds to the 5' guanine cap.
What does not occur during the processing of eukaryotic mRNA?
a ribosome recognition sequence is added
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