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Beethoven (Sonata Pathetique) Elements of Music Level 2
Terms in this set (26)
There are a number of scalic passages in the piece, including the descending chromatic scale at the end of the introduction.
Other ideas include arpeggios and broken chords.
Ornaments are an important feature, including acciaccaturas and mordents in theme 2, and trills just before the recapitulation.
The development section uses sequences.
The themes in the exposition are linked by transitions (or bridges).
There is a codetta at the end of the exposition, then the whole exposition is repeated.
The intro uses Fp (fortepiano) markings, meaning loud then immediately soft..
The intro also uses Sf (sforzando) markings, meaning a sudden loud accent.
Beethoven was a forward thinking composer, and this piece shows signs of the romantic era.
The piece was composed between 1796 and 1799.
there are some more complicated, chromatic chords used, including a diminished 7th at the start of bar 2 (this was the most dissonant chord available to Beethoven at the time.
Perfect cadences announce the ends of sections and changes of key (this is called functional harmony).
There are perfect cadences at the end of the piece.
There are pedal notes, like the dominant pedal at the end of the development section (dominant preparation).
There is an interrupted cadence in the introduction at bar 9.
Although it is not written in the score, Beethove would have used the sustain pedal for greater expression.
The piano allowed Beethoven to make extensive use of all kinds of dynamic possibilities.
The first subject is in C minor,
The 2nd subject starts in the unexpected key of Eb minor, then moves to the expected key of Eb major (the relative major of C minor).
In the development section the piece modulates to many different keys, including distant, unrelated keys such as E minor (at the start of the development section).
In the recapitulation the 1st subject is back in C minor.
The 2nd subject initially plays in the unexpected key of F minor, then moves to the expected key of C minor (to match the key of the 1st subject).
The main tempo for the piece is allegro di molto e con brio (very fast with vigour), and is written in 2/2 (cut common time, also known as alla breve).
Rhythm, Tempo and Metre
There are some very rapid notes (short note values).
Rhythm, Tempo and Metre
There is a monophonic section with a long descending scale leading into the recapitulation.
The right hand plays in octaves half way through the introduction.
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