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Chapter 22 - Respiratory System
Terms in this set (104)
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
Ventilation of lungs, exchange of gases between air and blood and between blood and tissue fluid, use of oxygen in cellular metabolism, and assists with pH level
What organ of the respiratory system warms, cleanses, and humidifies inhaled air, detects odors, and amplifies the voice?
What organ of the respiratory system is a muscular funnel that consists of three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx?
What organ of the respiratory system is a cartilaginous chamber composed of nine cartilages, keeps food and drink out of the airway, and produces sound?
What organ of the respiratory system is known as the "windpipe"?
What are lined with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium that functions as a mucociliary escalator?
Larynx and trachea
What traps inhaled debris?
What drives the mucus up to the pharynx where it is swallowed?
What conducts air between the trachea and the lungs?
What is a conical organ with a broad, concave base resting on the diaphragm and is the primary organ of respiration?
Trace the air flow from the nose to the pulmonary alveoli.
Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, main bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchus, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
Where does has exchange occur?
What is the conducting division?
Nostrils to bronchioles
What is the respiratory division?
Alveoli and distal gas-exchange regions
What is a highly branched system of air tubes extending from primary bronchus?
What consists of primary bronchi, secondary or lobar bronchi, and tertiary or segmental bronchi?
Which bronchi have C-shaped rings?
Which bronchi have overlapping plates?
Secondary (lobar) bronchi and tertiary (segmental) bronchi
What reduces friction and creates a pressure gradient?
What is lower pressure that assists in inflation of lungs?
What compartmentalizes the thoracic organs and prevents the spread of infection?
What are responsible for gas exchange with the bloodstream and bud from respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs?
What have macrophages that serve as the last line of defense against inhaled matter?
What is the primary muscle of inspiration?
What flattens during inspiration and increases depth of thoracic cavity?
Dome of diaphragm
What happens when the thoracic cavity enlarges?
Internal pressure lowers and produces an airflow
What happens to the diaphragm during forced expiration?
Diaphragm bulges upward, compresses the lungs, and expels air
What muscles stiffen the thoracic cage during respiration and prevent it from caving inward when the diaphragm descends?
What muscles contribute to the enlargement and contraction of the thoracic cage and add about 1/3 of the air that ventilates the lungs?
During quiet breathing, external intercostals elevate what?
Ribs 2 - 12 to widen the thoracic cavity
What muscles fix or elevate ribs 1 - 2?
What muscles are used in deep inspiration?
Pectoralis minor, sternacleidomastoid, and erector spinae muscles
What is used during quiet breathing and is achieved by the elasticity of the lungs and the thoracic cage?
Where is the neuronal control of breathing located?
Cerebrum and brainstem
True or False: Although breathing is mostly an autonomic function, we can still actively control ventilation in other ways.
What is a motor cortex of frontal lobe of cerebrum that sends impulses down the corticopsinal tracts to respiratory neurons in the spinal cord bypassing the brainstem?
Where does the back and forth traffic for carbon dioxide and oxygen occur?
Across respiratory membrane
What drives respiration?
How is atmospheric pressure measured?
1 atmosphere = 760 mmHg
What is the pressure between the two layers of pleura?
What is the pressure in alveoli?
What is intrapleural pressure - intrapulmonary pressure?
What law states that pressure is inversely proportional to volume?
What law states that for a given amount of gas, as volume increases, pressure decreases and as volume decreases, pressure increases?
What is the difference between atmospheric and intrapulmonay pressure?
Give an example of pressure gradients
If intrapulmonary pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the lungs will fill
What is created by changes in volume of the thoracic cavity?
What occurs when volume of thoracic cavity decreases, intrapulmonary pressure increases, and air is expelled?
What fills conducting division of the airway and cannot be exchanged at the alveoli?
What is found in the conducting division of the airway and no gas is exchanged?
Anatomical dead space
What is the sum of anatomic dead space and any pathological alveolar dead space?
Physiological dead space
What is the amount of air that actually ventilates alveoli times the respiratory rate and is directly relevant to the body's ability to exchange gases?
Alveolar ventilation rate
What is a device that a subject breathes into that measures ventilation?
What is the amount of air inhaled or exhaled in one breath during relaxed, quiet breathing?
What is the amount of air in excess of tidal inspiration that can be inhaled with maximum effort?
Inspiratory reserve volume
What is the amount of air in excess of tidal expiration that can be exhaled with maximum effort?
Expiratory reserve volume
What is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration that keeps alveoli inflated between breaths and mixes with fresh air on next inspiration?
How much is tidal volume?
What is the amount of air that can be exhaled with maximum effort after maximum inspiration and is used to assess strength of thoracic muscles as well as pulmonary function?
What is the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal expiration?
What is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal expiration?
Functional residual capacity
What is the maximum amount of air that the lungs can contain?
Total lung capacity
What is the temporary cessation of breathing (one or more skipped breaths)?
What is labored, gasping breathing and shortness of breath?
What is an increased rate and depth of breathing in response to exercise, pain, or other conditions?
What is an increased pulmonary ventilation in excess of metabolic demand that is frequently associated with anxiety and expels carbon dioxide faster than it is produced thus lowering the blood carbon dioxide concentration and raising the blood pH?
What is a reduced pulmonary ventilation that leads to an increase in blood carbon dioxide concentration if ventilation is insufficient to expel carbon dioxide as fast as it is produced?
What is deep, rapid breathing often induced by acidosis and is seen in diabetes mellitus?
What is dyspnea that occurs when a person is lying down or in any position other than standing or sitting erect and is seen in heart failure, asthma, emphysema, and other conditiona?
What is the permanent cessation of breathing (unless there is medical intervention)?
What is accelerated respiration?
What affect respiratory volumes and capacities?
Age, exercise, body size, restrictive disorders, and obstructive disorders
What effect decreases lung compliance and weakens the respiratory muscles?
What effect maintains strength of respiratory muscles?
What effect is proportional so the larger the body the larger the lungs?
What effect decreases lung compliance and vital capacity?
What effect interferes with airflow and expiration requires more effort is less complete?
What law states that the pressure of given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to volume such as in the heart?
What law states that the pressure of a given quantity of gas is directly proportional to volume such as the inflation of lungs is aided by warming of inhaled air (air becomes warmer as it moves to the alveoli and makes the lungs expand)?
What law states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases?
What law states that at the air-water interface, for a given temperature, the amount of gas that dissolved in the water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in air such as how carbon dioxide and oxygen diffuse into and out of alveoli?
How much nitrogen is in the air?
How much oxygen is in the air?
How much water is in the air?
How much carbon dioxide is in the air?
What is the process of carrying gases from the alveoli to the systemic tissues and vice versa?
What monitor pH, Pco2, and Po2 of body fluids?
What primarily monitor pH of CSF?
What is any disease where there is a long-term obstruction of airflow and a substantial reduction in pulmonary ventilation?
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
What are the two main COPDs?
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema
What is a severe, persistent inflammation of the lower respiratory tract?
What disease is caused when the alveolar walls break down causing much less respiratory membrane for gas exchange which in turn makes the lungs become fibrotic and less elastic?
What disease is present when air passages collapse and obstruct outflow of air?
What disease has other effects such as reducing vital capacity, causing hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory acidosis?
What is the hypertrophy and potential failure of the right side of the heart due to obstruction of the pulmonary circulation?
What is caused when an allergen triggers histamine release causing intense bronchoconstriction?
What accounts for more deaths than any other form of cancer?
What is the most important cause of lung cancer?
What is the most common form of cancer?
What beings with the transformation of bronchial epithelium into stratified squamous?
What disease has dividing cells invade bronchial wall causing bleeding lesions?
What happens to functional respiratory tissue in squamous cell carcinoma?
Dens swirls of keratin replace functional respiratory tissue
What cancer originates in mucous glands of lamina propria?
What cancer is the least common but most dangerous and originates in primary bronchi, invades mediastinum, and metastasizes quickly?
Small-cell (oat-cell) carcinoma
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