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Introductory Psychology CLEP study cards
Terms in this set (53)
three major areas of focus within the study of personality.
psychoanalytic, social-cognitive, and humanistic theories
share the common beliefs that people's behavior is motivated largely by unconscious needs; that people feel conflict between getting those needs met, on the one hand, and social pressures to behave in ways that wouldn't meet those needs, on the other; and that maladaptive, unhealthy behavior is the product of that conflict.
(Freud, Jung, Adler, Horney, Erikson)
describes people as having two fundamental needs or motives: sex and aggression. Unbridled sex and aggression are not generally accepted among the general population, so there are social pressures on children (from parents, in large part, who represent society as a whole) to restrain themselves from acting on these needs. A child's personality develops as it figures out how to get its basic needs met while still making Mon and Dad happy.
Sigmund Freud's theory of psychoanalysis
Freudian terms to describe the three parts of the self and the basis of human behavior, which Freud saw as basically irrational
id, ego, and superego
this term refers to the biological part of our personality and, so, to the built-in sexual aggressive needs that drive our behavior.
do what feels good, and do it now (trait of the id)
the rational, realistic part of our personality.
-involves learning problem-solving, and reasoning, or operating according to the reality principle.
do what will get your needs met effectively, efficiently, and without getting yourself hurt.
the reality princple
the social part of our personality that allows us to get along with other people.
do what's right, and don't do what's wrong.
the morality principle
The condition of feeling uneasy or worried about what may happen
irrational fears of specific objects or situations
when people distort reality (consciously or unconsciously) in order to delude themselves into believing that something anxiety-provoking isn't happening.
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities.
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people re-channel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities.
In Freud's theory, age-related developmental periods in which the child's sexual urges are focused on different areas of the body and are expressed through the activities associated with those areas.
Freud's first stage of psychosexual development during which pleasure is centered in the mouth
-birth to about 2 years.
a desire to build one's life around getting certain needs met.
Freud's psychosexual period during which a child learns to control his bodily excretions
-roughly 2-4 years
people who put off getting pleasure until the last moment and like to have everything it its proper place.
people who are messy and rebellious.
Freud's third stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure. For girls, they realize they're missing a penis and wish they had one (penis envy).
In psychoanalysis, the fear in young boys that they will be mutilated genitally because of their lust for their mothers.
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals
according to this approach, people are basically good and the world would be better off if they were allowed to express their true selves without restraints.
humanistic approach to personality
people construct an image of who they are based on their desire to grow (to reach self-actualization) and from feedback from others
Carl Rogers' self theory
the talents, thoughts, desires, and feelings that we genuinely have.
what we think we are like.
what we would like to be.
accepting who you are as part of your self-concept and adjusting your ideals to reflect that; in other words, being all you can be.
the standards that the individual must live up to in order to receive positive regard from others
conditions of worth
an appreciation of who the child is, faults and all, that builds the self-esteem of the child.
-unconditional positive regard
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
a way of explaining consistence in behavior in terms of personality that focuses on cognition.
how people thing about themselves and their relations with the world around them.
how people think, how people behave, and what their environment is like all interact to influence the consistency of behavior.
personality is not about big theories - just ways that people differ.
-measuring the many ways in which people differ, reducing those many ways down to a more manageable subset, and using measurements of those characteristics to predict actual behavior.
individual-difference approach to personality
consistent patterns of behavior.
a way in which traits are usually measured.
-typically ask people to judge their agreement with statements describing behaviors that might be indicative of a particular trait.
represent an attempt to reduce the many ways of describing people down to just a few fundamental dimensions of personality.
Big Five Personality Traits
Big Five Personality Traits
Big Five Personality Traits
O - Openness
C - Conscientiousness
E - Extraversion
A - Agreeableness
N - Neuroticism
a statistical procedure used to identify traits for which scores correlate highly with each other, presumably because they measure very much the same thing and are fundamental to describing what personality is all about.
inquiring, independent, curious
outgoing, socially adaptive
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