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CHP 18: Managing Performance
Terms in this set (37)
the heart and essence of leadership success; the process of performance planning, establishing direction and clarity of assignment; performance coaching, developing and encouraging others; and correcting poor performance, modifying and improving performance when mistakes are made.
clearly communicating goals, coaching others to succeed, and correcting poor performance
Effective leadership requires the art of
establishes direction and clarity of assignment. It provides the foundation on which individual and group performance can be developed and evaluated.
involves the development and encouragement of people. The leader's challenge is to help individuals grow and fulfill their personal potential while advancing the organization's purpose.
Correcting poor performance
includes modifying and improving performance when mistakes are made.
One-minute goal setting for performance planning.
One-minute praising for performance coaching.
One-minute reprimand for correcting poor performance
In their best-selling book on leadership, The One Minute Manager, Ken Blanchard and Spencer Johnson teach three secrets to leadership success that correspond with performance planning, coaching, and correcting. These are leadership techniques that work at all levels of leadership and in all work environments. The three secrets are as follows:
One-minute goal setting
involves identifying three to five goals that are critical to success and writing them on a single sheet of paper—in 250 or fewer words. It is important to include the individual in the goal-setting process, because there is a strong relationship between personal involvement and future success. The individual needs psychological investment, and participation in goal setting helps accomplish this purpose.
involves showing appreciation for effort and accomplishments. It is based on two ideas: (1) People need feedback as a way of tracking and sustaining progress and (2) what gets rewarded gets repeated. One-minute praising has four characteristics:
Praise is immediate.
Praise is specific.
Praise is sincere, not false or phony.
The individual is encouraged.
The one-minute reprimand
is saved for individuals who are trained and who know what to do but make mistakes. The one-minute reprimand has four characteristics:
Correction is immediate.
Correction focuses on behavior (what has been said or done), not on the character of the person.
Correction is sincere, not false or phony.
The individual is encouraged.
SETTING PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
Management author Peter Drucker explains the importance of setting goals and performance objectives in the work setting:
Each person, from the highest level to the lowest level, should have clear objectives that support the success of the organization.
quantity, quality, timeliness, and cost.
When setting performance objectives, it is important to address four major areas—
. The most common method of measuring performance depends to some degree on quantity. In one way or another, we tally number of sales made, dollar volume generated, number of hours billed, number of fenders painted, or any amount that is processed or produced.
This is one of the most important areas for which standards apply. Measurements of quality include at least two factors: errors and appearance. Errors can include monitoring rejects, misfiles, safety records, customer complaints, miswelds, wrong diagnoses, and countless other areas. Appearance deals with items other than rejects or specific errors and is more subjective in judgment. It covers such areas as neatness, a person's manner in answering the telephone, a receptionist's greeting of visitors, and a service representative's explanation to a dissatisfied customer.
This area includes such time factors as deadlines for on-time shipments, on-time departures and arrivals, and absenteeism. Timeliness can also involve the development of new and workable approaches. The most creative idea needs the right moment for its introduction.
manpower, material, machines, and methods. For example, is the person able to perform while controlling expenditures for labor, inventory, equipment, and corporate services? Can the person live within a reasonable budget?
Cost. Cost includes the four M's of management:
When performance objectives are specific and measurable, the individual can know when, and to what extent, those objectives have been achieved.
CONDUCTING PERFORMANCE REVIEWS
After performance objectives have been established, progress should be reviewed to capitalize on strengths and improve weaknesses. Performance reviews keep communication lines open, help motivate employees, and give peace of mind to both employer and employee
preparation, implementation, and follow-up
Performance reviews should include three steps:
What to Do before the Performance Review
As an employee, you should
Consider your strong points and formulate a plan to utilize them fully.
Determine the areas in which you need to improve. Devise a plan to strengthen your performance in these areas.
Think about what your supervisor can do to help you improve.
As a supervisor, you should
Consider your employee's strong points and think about how you can reinforce or capitalize on these.
Think about your employee's weak areas and consider actions for improvement.
Think about what you can do to help your employee improve.
Provide advance notice of the performance review; solicit employee input.
As an employee,
Explain your strengths and weaknesses. Be thorough in expressing each one.
Discuss issues that may not be apparent to the supervisor that hinder your performance.Page 447
Present ideas to improve future performance; don't dwell on past mistakes, either to save face or to fix blame.
Present what you think your supervisor can do to help you improve.
Listen carefully to your supervisor's reactions; these are important indications of attitudes, priorities, and perceptions that will be useful in future dealings.
Obtain final agreement on what each of you will do. Don't settle for "Let's discuss this again at a later date." Try to get as much commitment and agreement as possible.
What to Do during the Performance Review
As a supervisor,
Create a positive climate—quiet, private, and free from interruptions.
Tailor the conversation to suit the needs of your employee. Stop talking and listen. Have your employee begin by explaining each strength and weakness in his or her own words. Provide ample time for the full development of each point; avoid interrupting.
Ask questions based on your prior preparation as well as on new information developed during the conversation. Encourage your employee to do the same.
Be open and flexible to issues that may come up that you may not know about. Take a problem-solving versus problem-blaming approach.
Ask how you can help your employee do a better job; listen carefully and take notes.
Establish new performance objectives, standards, and completion dates. Make your expectations clear. Be direct and honest.
Write down points of discussion and agreement. Review them so that both you and your employee have the same understanding.
Remember that a performance review should involve two-way communication. Be prepared to compromise and be flexible. Remember also that you are the supervisor and, as such, are responsible for resolving differences.
End the meeting on an upbeat, positive, and future-focused note.
What to Do after the Performance Review
As an employee, you should
Keep your supervisor informed of progress toward meeting objectives.
Discuss with your supervisor as soon as possible any changes that occur that affect your objectives.
As a supervisor, you should
Develop a system of checks and reminders to be sure that performance objectives are being met.
Show your employee that you want him or her to succeed. Provide positive reinforcement for progress made toward accomplishing objectives.
Multisource evaluations can be useful for training, coaching, succession planning, and other talent management initiatives to improve performance. Approximately 90 percent of Fortune 1,000 companies use some form of multisource assessment, including evaluations from supervisors, employees, peers, and customers. These assessments are called 360-degree feedback, because the individual is rated by a whole circle of people
Behavior change is necessary.
Recipients believe change is possible.
Appropriate improvement goals are set.
Improvement is recognized and rewarded.14
Research shows improvement is most likely to occur when
At the core of using 360-degree feedback is the issue of trust. Using multisource evaluations confidentially for development purposes builds trust, while using them to make pay and personnel decisions reduces trust.
Use feedback as soon as possible.
Focus on behavior change, not personality analysis.
Link feedback to learning and performance goals.
Align improvement goals with key results for the organization.
Coach for improvement, not just for final results
When coaching others for growth, use the following guidelines:
Recognize and retain high performers.
Reinforce and develop the skills and attitudes of middle performers.
Confront and correct or dismiss low performers
The effective leader takes action to be sure every employee performs good work and has a positive attitude. Good performance and attitude are rewarded; poor performance and attitude are addressed and corrected. In high-, middle-, and low-performer conversations, the goal is to move performance to the next level. The leader must
Effective performance management requires willingness and skill in having crucial conversations. Crucial conversations happen between two or more people when opinions vary, stakes are high, and emotions run strong
includes reliability, efficiency, innovation, productivity, and service behaviors.
includes consideration, collaboration, helpfulness, and organizational commitment behaviors.
Dismiss before completion of probation.
Poor work performance + poor work attitude(PWP + PWA)
Coach to improve work attitude.
Good work performance + poor work attitude(GWP + PWA)
Train to improve work performance.
Poor work performance + good work attitude(PWP + GWA)
Reward to show appreciation and reinforce morale and performance.
Good work performance + good work attitude(GWP + GWA)
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