Physics Kylee Grace Electricity

Static Electricity
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OutwardDirection fo force on (+) charges is __________.InwardDirection of force on negative charge is __________.1. the amount of charge that produces the field. The more charge an object has, the greater is the force on it. 2. the distance from the charge. The closer to the charged object the greater the force.The strength of an electric field depends on:Static ElectricityThe build up of charges on an object is called ______________. It is the study of the behavior of electric charges, including how charges are transferred between objects.Friction, Conduction, Inductionwhat are the three ways to charge an object?RubbingFriction- transfer of electrons from one object to another by __________. (rubbing balloon on head, walking across a carpet)Direct ContactContact or Conduction —transfer of electrons from a charged object to another object by _________________.( touching Van de Graaff Generator which is charged)No contactInduction- movement of electrons caused by the electric field of another object. It is a transfer of charges with ___________.when certain materials are rubbed against each other, like wool on plastic or the soles of your shoes on the carpet. The process causes electrons to be pulled from the surface of one material and relocated on the surface of the other material.What causes static electricity?FrictionRubbing a balloon on a wool sweater or hair or walking across carpet creates charges on the surfaces . Charges are being transferred by ___________.FrictionElectrons move from your hair to the hat/sweater via________.Contact or ConductionA Van de Graaff Generator will collect electrons (negative charge) on the top metal dome. If you are touching it the electrons will move to you. This is an example of electrons transferring by _________________.FrictionThink about how you can make a balloon stick to the wall. If you charge a balloon by rubbing it on your hair (example of ___________.), it picks up extra electrons and has a negative charge.InductionHolding it near a neutral object, like a wall, will make the charges in that object move. This is an example of _________________.Static DischargeThis loss of static electricity as electric charges move off an object is called __________ _____________.Lightning_______________ is an example of static discharge.FrictionCharges can build up in a storm cloud from ___________ between moving air masses.InducesNegative charge in the lower part of the cloud _____________ a positive charge in the ground below the cloud.Pathway through which charges can moveStatic discharge occurs when a _________________________ forms suddenly.Electric CurrentA continuous flow of electric charge is an ________ __________. If you have a low current then you have a fewer number of charges flowing.Ampere, Amp, IThe SI unit of electric current is the __________, or _______, the symbol for current is (___); which equals 1 coulomb per second. (the rate of a moving electric charge)Direct CurentCharge flows only in one direction.Batteries produce direct currents (DC)What is an example of direct currentAlternative Currenta flow of electric charge that regularly reverses its directionHomes, Schools, Buildings use alternating urrentWhat is an example of alternating current?Electrical ConductorsSome materials have loosely held electrons, which move through them very easily. These are called _________ __________. Most metals, such as copper and silver are good conductors. They allow charges to flow easily.Electric InsulatorsOther materials hold their electrons very tightly. Electrons do not move through them very well. These things are called _____________ __________. Plastic, wood, glass, rubber, and dry air are good electrical insulators.VoltageTells how much energy is per chargeHigher, LowerElectrons flow from areas of ________ electric potential/voltage to areas of __________ electric potential/voltage.VoltageTherefore electric potential is called _____________.Voltagecauses current to flow through an electric circuit due to a potential difference.Voltage Source________________________ such as a battery creates a potential difference in an electric circuit.Batteries, Solar Cells, GeneratorsExamples of voltage sources:Negative, electrons begin the flow from the negative to the positive terminal.Electrons collect on the ________________ terminal of the battery. If you connect a conducting wire between the negative and positive terminals, the _____________________.Resistanceopposition to the flow of charges in a material; impedes the flow of current.OhmUnit for resistanceResistanceMaterial's thickness, length, and temperature affects its _________.OhmWhat is the SI unit for resistance.George Ohm___________ found a mathetimatical relationship between voltage, current, and resistance.Current x ResistanceVoltage =CurrentMoving electric chargesVoltageHow much energy per chargeResistanceInterferes with current flowElectric CurrentAn _____________ _____________ is a complete path through which charge can flow. Circuit diagrams use symbols to represent parts of a circuit, including a source of electrical energy and devices that are run by the electrical energy.Electrons__________________ in a circuit move from the negative terminal of a battery to the positive end. This is opposite to the direction in which the current is shown to move in conventional flow.Series CirctuiAll parts of an electric circuit are connected one after.One PathSeries circuitProvides only ___________ for the flow of electrons, one path for current to take;— if one light goes out in series, All lights go out because there is only one path for the current to flow. — light bulbs in a series circuit becomes dimmer as more bulbs are added because resistance increases. — there is a voltage drop across each resistor. Remember some of the energy the charges are carrying is being transferred from electrical energy to light energy to light up the bulb. — resistance is greater because there is only one path the current can take.Name the four disadvantages of a series circuit.Parallel circuitDifferent parts of the circuit are on separate branchesSeveralIn a parallel circuit, there are________ paths for teh current to take.Parallel Circuit(used in your homes), provides several paths for the flow of electrons, several paths for currents to take.Remain LitIn a parallel circuit, if one bulb goes out the others ____________.Not ChangeAs you add branches to a parallel circuit, the brightness of the light bulbs does __________. Resistance is less because the current has several paths that it can takPowerrate at which energy is converted from one form into another. ( work / time ) or (energy/time) (J/s)Electric Powerthe rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of energy; Energy converted from the electrical energy of the moving charges to some other form, e.g., heat, mechanical energy, or light energy.WattUnit for PowerElectric Powercan also be calculated by multiplying voltage by current.Voltage x CurrentPower =Power x TimeEnergy =Multiply Power by TimeTo find the electrical energy used by an applicance, ___________.Correct wiring, fuses, circuit breakers, insulation, grounded plugs, and ground-fault circuit interrupter______________________ help make electrical energy safe to use.Short Circuita connection that allows current to take an unintended path.GCFIMonitors current flow from an outlet.3rd, rounded prong connects the metal shell of an appliance to the ground wire of a building.Third Prongs on Plugs---are also safety devices to prevent shocks; 2 flat prongs connect appliance to circuit the ___________________.Fusea device that contains a thin strip of metal that will melt if too much current flows through it.Circuit Breakera safety device that uses an electromagnet to shut off the circuit when the current gets too high. Used in homes. It must be reset before the circuit can be used again.Electrical devices, electronic devicesThe toaster and lamp are ____________ ___________. They use electric current to heat or light the appliance. The computer and cell phone are ____________ _______________, they use electric current to process or send informationAnalog and DigitalWhat are the two types of electronic signals?Analog SignalSmoothly varying signal produced by continuously changing the voltage or current in a circuit.Digital SignalPulsing of a current on and off produces a digital signal. It encodes information as a string of 1's and 0's.Digital Signals________________ are more reliable than analog signals.Diodes, Transistors, Integrated CircuitWhat are the three of the most useful solid state components.1. change alternating current into direct current, 2. increase the strength of a signal 3. turn a current on or off3 Functiosn of a vacuum tubeSemiconductorA _________ is a crystalline solid that conducts current under certain conditions.