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Motor Learning exam 3
Terms in this set (44)
· Positive Transfer
The beneficial effect of previous experience on the learning or performance of a new skill, or on the performance of a skill in new context (similarity of skill and context components)
The transfer-appropriate-processing theory
an explanation of positive transfer proposing that transfer is due to the similarity in the cognitive processing characteristics required by the two skills or two performance
· The direction of bilateral transfer between two limbs is typically:
· A procedure that some researchers use to investigate the question of what an observer perceives when observing a demonstration is known as the:
Point-light technique (involves placing LED's or light-reflecting material on certain joins, and filming the person performing the action)
A beginner can benefit from observing another beginner practice a skill especially when the observer can
hear the augmented feedback given to the other beginner
· Research investigating the influence of the frequency of demonstrating a skill has shown that
The more frequent a beginner observes a skilled demonstration, the more opportunity the beginner will have to acquire the movement pattern. The observer detects invariant characteristics of movement pattern involved in the performance
· Research has shown that to achieve the best learning of skills that require both speed and accuracy, the initial verbal instructions should emphasize
accuracy rather than speed
· Knowledge of results
Category of augmented feedback that gives information about the outcome of a attempt to perform a skill
· Knowledge of performance
Category of augmented feedback that gives information about the movement characteristics that led to a performance
· When augmented feedback serves to encourage a person to continue striving to achieve a performance goal, augmented feedback functions as:
In experiments in which erroneous KR was given to participants for skills that could be learned on
ignored the task-intrinsic feedback and performed according to the erroneous KR
· Performance bandwidth
Context of providing augmented feedback, a range of acceptance performance error; the augmented feedback it is only given when the amount of error is greater than the limit
· According to Gentile, developing variable practice experiences for closed skills should focus on...
the non regulatory conditions related to the skill
· For open skills, regulatory conditions (do what?)
Change from one attempt to another
· Contextual interference (blocked, serial, and random)
Occurs when a high amount of context interference results in better learning; the amount of contextual interference that is possible in a practice situation is portrayed as a continuum ranging from high to low. 1 (high)- random order of trials of task variations. 2- serial order of trials of a task variations. 3- random repetition of short blocks of trials of each task variation. 4- serial repetition of short blocks of trials of each task variation. 5 (low)- nonrepeated blocks of trials of each task variation
· Research has shown that blocked practice consistently leads to poor performance
During practice, but better performance on retention and transfer test
In experiments in which participants are asked during practice trials to predict how well they think they perform on a retention test, the results show that participants experiencing a blocked schedule will
Overestimate their learning during practice. Performance during practice causes learners to misjudge the amount they are actually learning
· In the U.S. Army sponsored study by Schendel and Hagman, the machine gun assembly-disassembly skill that was shown to benefit from overtraining was referred to as which of the following types of skill?
Procedural skill- skills that include a combination of cognitive and motor components and require performance of a series of relatively simple movements
Dynamic balance skill- research has found diminishing returns for amount of extra practice physical education class settings- one study reported student-determined extra practice resulted in a more efficient use of practice time than teacher determined extra practice (procedural skill)
· Random practice
A sequence of practice trials in which the same task is never repeated on consecutive trials. Must be variable category (variability of practice)
· Blocked practice
· A sequence of practice trials in which all trials of a given task are performed together
Involves longer active practices, or work time, and short rest periods between them
· Distributed practice.
Practice sections are longer because the rest periods between practices are relatively long
· When massed practice hinders the learning of continuous skills, the most probable cause is...
· Task complexity
The number of parts or components and degree of information processing that characterized a skill; the more complex the skills, have more component parts and greater information- processing demands than less complex skills
· Task organization
Refers to the relationship among the components parts of the skill
· According to the Naylor and Briggs hypothesis, whole practice of a motor skill is recommended for skills that are...
Low in complexity and high in organization
· If a skill should not be physically separated for part practice, an alternative means of achieving the benefits of part practice is to...
direct your attention specifically to a part of the skill you are having difficulty with
· Natural unit
Of parts of a skill describes a guideline for determining which components of a skill should be grouped together to practice as parts
· If a person visually imagines himself or herself performing a skill from the perspective of an observer, the type of mental practice is referred to as...
· The neuromuscular explanation for the effectiveness of mental practice has been supported by research showing...
EMG activity in muscles even though the limbs aren't moving
· The Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ) has been established to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess...
The effectiveness of imagery is based on people's ability to visually or kinesthetically image physical movement
· Performance of a new experience that is hindered by experience with a previous skill is an example of ________ transfer.
· If the same amount of bilateral transfer occurs from one limb to the other limb, then it is called ________ bilateral transfer.
· We can historically trace the view that transfer occurs because of the similar characteristics of two skills to Thorndike's ________ theory.
A term that has been used to describe the type of learning involved when a visual model is used to demonstrate a skill is ________ learning
Observation of another beginner practicing a skill seems to work best when the observer can hear the ________ given by the instructor.
· It is important that the verbal instructions given to a beginner should not exceed that person's limited ________ capacity to attend to information.
· When EMG or heart rate is given to people as augmented feedback, the general term used to describe this type of augmented feedback is
· When augmented feedback is given while a person is performing a skill or movement, it is known as ________ augmented feedback.
Research has shown that the general guideline for establishing the frequency of practice sessions is that [more and shorter] or [fewer and longer] sessions are preferable
More and shorter
· A progressive-part method of practicing a skill has also been called a ________ method of part-task training.
· If you practiced juggling scarves before juggling tennis balls, the practice strategy you would be using is called the ________ method.
· Of the two types of imagery that have been categorized, the one that involves people experiencing the sensations that could be expected in an actual performance situation is called ________ imagery.
· Two roles for mental practice related to motor skills are aiding in the acquisition of skills and in the ________ for performing skills.
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