What are the most commonly injured ligaments of the Ankle Joint?
Cacaneofibular and the Anterior Talofibular
What are the medial ligaments of the Ankle Joint collectively known as?
What actions take place at the Ankle Joint?
Plantar and Dorsal Flexion ONLY
What is the classification of the Subtalar Talocalcaneonavicular Calcaneocuboid Joint?
What are the articulations of the Subtalar Talocalcaneonavicular Calcaneocuboid Joint?
Calcaneous, Talus, Cuboid, Navicular
What is the Spring Ligament of the Subtalar Talocalcaneonavicular Calcaneocuboid Joint?
What are the Short Plantar Ligaments of the Subtalar Talocalcaneonavicular Calcaneocuboid Joint?
Long Plantar and Plantar Calcaneocuboid
What is the major support for the Medial Longitudinal Arch?
Spring Ligament (Plantar Calcaneonavicular)
What movement goes on at the Subtalar Talocalcaneonavicular Calcaneocuboid Joint?
Inversion and Eversion
What is Pott's Fracture?
A fracture dislocation of the ankle, which occurs when the foot is forcibly everted or externally rotated. It may result in a tear of the deltoid ligament, fracture of the fibula, and a fracture of the distal tibia
What is Plantar Fascitis?
An overuse injury that causes pain on the medial aspect of the calcaneous and along the medial longitudinal arch. If a calcaneal spur is present, the condition may be termed "heel spur syndrome"
What is Plantar Nerve Reflex?
Stroking the skin of the lateral plantar aspect of the foot. Tests segmental levels L4-S2. Normal response is flexion of the toes. An abnormal isgn is the Babinski Sign (fan toes)
What is Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome?
A condition in which the tibial nerve or medial plantar nerve is compressed in the area behind the medial malleolus (the tarsal tunnel). Pain, which may be accompanied by paresthesia and numbness, is noted along the medial malleolus and plantar aspect of the foot and toes. Because of its frequency in runners, it is often called "Jogger's Foot"
What is Hallux Valgus?
An enlargement and deforming of the 1st MP joint in which the joint deviates laterally. The patient cannot move their first digit away from their second. It may become permanent (Hallux Rigidis). May lead to the formation of bunions.
What are Bunions?
Growth of new bone over the medial aspect of the 1st metatarsal, which causes the surrounding soft tissue to swell
What is a Hammer Toe?
A common deformity of the 2nd and 3rd toes. The MP and DIP joints are hyperextended which the PIP joint is flexed. Corns may develop over the flexed joint.
What are Corns?
A thickening of the keratin layer of the skin
What is Turf Toe?
The is a hyperextension injury to the plantar capsular ligament of the 1st MP joint. Often seen in football players playing on artificial turf.
What is Club Foot?
A structural foot deformity, usually congenital, involving the subtalar joint. The bones are abnormally fused and positioned. The foot is usually plantar flexted and inverted
What is Morton's Neuroma?
The term used for a normal foot with relation to the arches
What is Pes Planus?
The clinical term used to describe "flat feet". There are two types: Flexible - the condition is congenital and only visualized in weight bearing stance Rigid - can be congenital or aquired, and is visualized in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing stance
What is Pes Cavus?
A condition in which the medial longitudinal arch is unusually high, also known as "clawfoot"
What is Developmental Dysplasia?
A congenital dislocation of the hip joint in which the head of the femur ends up superior to the external surface of the ilium. The affected limb appears shorter and inability to adduct the thigh is characteristic. More commonly seen in females
What is an Aquired/Traumatic Dislocation?
May occur during an auto accident when the thigh is flexed, adducted and medially rotated. Posterior dislocation is most common and may damage the sciatic nerve. Anterior dislocation is rare but may damage the obturator nerve
What is Prepatellar Bursitis?
AKA Housemaid's Knee. Caused by friction between the skin and the patella
What is Suprapatellar Bursitis?
Inflammation of the suprapatellar bursa caused by abrasions or penetrating wounds. Infection may spread to the knee joint
What is an Unhappy Triad?
Term used to describe a tear of the mediacollateral ligament, the medial meniscus and the anterior cruciate ligament
What is the Anterior Drawer Test?
An orthopedic test in which the tibia is pushed backward under the femur. When the tibia can be pulled excessively, the test is "positive" and indicates a torn PCL
What is Osgood-Schlatter's Disease?
This is an avulsion injury of the secondary growth center for the tibial tuberosity. The patient complains of pain in the area of the tibial tuberosity. Very common in adolescent athletes
What is Os Trigonum?
Term used when the lateral tubercle does not unite with the body of the talus and ossified independently
What is a Stress Fracture?
Fine hairline fractures that occur without evidence of soft tissue injury. Commonly occur on the shaft of the tibia (runners), the navicular (high impact sports) and the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th metatarsals (walkers)
What is Compartment Syndrome?
Term used to describe an increase of pressure within a myofascial compartment. Typically exercise induced when there is an increase in blood volume within muscles. Causes pain and may result in ischemia. Can be acute or chronic.
What are Shin Splints?
Generic term used to describe anterior leg pain not due to compartment syndrome or stress fractures. More descriptive than diagnositc. Recent literature has been referring to this as "medial tibial stress syndrome"
What is Ski Boot Syndrome?
Term used to describe a compression neuropathy of the deep fibular nerve. May see weakened dorsiflexion and extension of toes, as well as sensory loss between the 1st and 2nd toes
What is a High Ankle Sprain?
A sprain involving the Inferior Tibiofibular Joint
What is a Calcaneal Tendon Reflex?
Tests segmental innervation of S1 and S2
What is Intermittent Claudication?
An occlusive peripheral artery disease characterized by painful leg cramps which develop during walking and diappear with rest. Palpating the posterior tibial artery is a useful screening test for this in the lower extremity