90 terms



Terms in this set (...)

a serious story (in this case, a drama) that relates the fall of a person of high status. It celebrates the courage and dignity of a tragic hero who faces inevitable doom because of a tragic flaw
Tragic Flaw and ex.
a personal weakness that brings
about the fall of the tragic hero ex. Macbeth - ambition and hubris
Pun and ex.
A play on words that relies on a word's having more than one meaning or sounding like
another word ex. Macbeth (to Murderer) - "thou art the best of cut-throats!"
Genre and ex.
a category of art, film, or writing ex. Tragedy, History, Comedy etc.
the term drama may refer to a single play, a group of plays ("Jacobean drama"), or to all plays ("world drama"). Drama is designed for performance in a theater; actors take on the roles of characters, perform indicated actions, and speak the dialogue written in the script. ex. Macbeth, Romeo & Juliet
Soliloquy and ex.
A dramatic convention by means of which a character, alone onstage, utters his or her thoughts aloud. Playwrights use soliloquies as a convenient way to inform the audience about a character's motivations and state of mind ex. Macbeth's soliloquy before murder of Duncan
Aside and ex.
In drama, a speech directed to the audience that supposedly is not audible to the other characters onstage at the time. ex. Macbeth's Prince of Cumberland aside
Paradox and ex.
a seemingly contradictory statement ex. "when the battle's lost and won"
Motif and ex.
a recurring element that has significance beyond itself ex. sleep/death, blood
Juxtaposition and ex.
technique in which two or
more ideas, places, characters and their actions etc. are placed side by side in a narrative or a poem for the purpose of
developing comparisons and contrasts. ex. Duncan and Lady Macbeth, trust & mistrust
Allusion and ex.
a reference to another literary work ex. "Why should I play the Roman Fool and die On mine own sword?"
Metaphor and ex.
a comparison of two unlike things (not a simile) for particular effect ex. "Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage."
Simile and ex.
same as metaphor, but with "like" or "as" ex. Doubtful it stood; As two spent swimmers, that do cling together And choke their art."
Symbol; contextual and conventional and ex.
anything that represents something more significant. conventional - something widely known, contextual - maintains its literal significance while suggesting other meanings. ex. conventional - blood, contextual - weather
Character Foil and ex.
A character (usually a minor character) whose behavior, values, or situation contrast
with those of another character for the purposes of highlighting the distinctive character of the more significant character
(usually the protagonist). ex. King Edward
a poem's rhythmical pattern ex. iambic pentameter
Iambic Pentameter and ex.
Each line of poetry consisting of five feet, each "iamb"containing two syllables, the first weakly
stressed and the second strongly stressed. It's the meter in which we mostly speak. ex. Threescore and ten I can remember well.
Blank Verse and ex.
Unrhymed iambic pentameter-
watch for those who rhyme and those who don't. What's the difference in character? ex. porter, sleeping lady macbeth
a broad term used to describe writing that is not poetry.
Hubris and ex.
a negative term implying
both arrogant, excessive self pride and also a hamartia; a lack of some important insight due to pride in one's abilities. ex. Macbeth before attack
HA - Became king of Scotland in 1040 after defeating King Duncan who was a weak and youthful ruler with little experience
Shakespeare presents an older
Duncan who is due respect by
his thanes—making his murder
more heinous.
HA - Lady Macbeth is barely mentioned in Holinshed's Chronicles, Shakespeare's primary source for the original
Both Macbeth and Lady
Macbeth are developed
as impressively ambitious
HA - Reigned for 17 years and survived the battles that occur at the end of the story.
Killed in final battle, served for shorter time period
HA - Banquo was partly involved in Duncan's murder.
Shakespeare "polished" the
Banquo part because King
James I was a descendant of
the Banquo-Fleance line.
What was Shakespeare's Date of Birth/Death
April 23 1564 - April 23, 1616
To whom did he marry and why? Their ages?
Married Anne Hathaway because she was pregnant. she was 26 and he was 18.
How many children & names
3; Susanna, Judith and Hamnet
what tragedy happened to his son?
Hamnet died of Bubonic Plague at age of 11
how many plays written; name 5
37-38; Romeo & Juliet, A Midsummer-Night's Dream, Merchant of Venice, The Tempest, Othello
dates of Elizabethan era
origin of name of Elizabethan Era
After Queen Elizabeth I
Monarchs of Shakespeare's lifetime
Elizabeth I and James I
How the queen felt about the theater and arts, and how that differed from before
Felt were extremely important, but previous to her reign the arts were banned due to religion
What is the Black Plague? What are other names for it?
A disease that killed 1/3 of England's population; Bubonic Plague, Black Death, Great Mortality
How did the plague spread during Shakespeare's lifetime
fleas carried disease -> rats ate fleas, boarded trade ships -> trade ships traveled all around europe/asia, carried disease
How many died of the Plague
symptoms, average living time following symptoms
buboes (egg-apple size swellings), bruising, vomiting; 1 day to 1 week
Why called the Globe?
Shakespeare claimed "all the world's a stage"
How much of the price for the globe did shakespeare pay?
what city was the theater in?
Southwark(Bankside) in London
What was the name of the actors before and after the crowning of King James I
Lord Chamberlain's Men, than The King's Men
co-owners of theater
Richard and Cuthbert Burbage, John Heminges, Augustine Phillips, August Pope
shape of roof, why
The theater roof had a hole in the middle to light the stage because did not have electricity
how advertise plays
Flew flags above theater; red - history; white - comedy; black - tragedy
'penny public,' costs per seat
general public, could fit nearly 1000 in pit (floor) of theater for 1 penny; up to six penny cost - every level one more penny, cushion one penny
what 3 types of action did the plays begin with and why
violence, romantic/sexual reference, humor, or supernatural; to please groundlings so would not riot
types of english, which unreadable today?
old, middle and modern; old unreadable
what type of english shakespeare used
Wrote in early modern english
what parts were for women?
women forbidden to perform, young boys played their parts
how did the actors make up for props
wrote into language, elaborate costumes
what happened to the original globe, is it still standing today?
burnt in 1613, reconstructed in 1614, destroyed by Puritans in 1642, second rebuilt recently 750 feet away from original placement
witches are introduced
Act 1 Scene 1
Duncan speaks to a wounded captain about the invading Irish force, led by traitor Macdonwald. The captain was wounded helping Malcolm escape, and says that generals Macbeth and Banquo fought well. Ross then enters and reveals that the traitorous thane of Cawdor and the Norweigan army has been defeated. Duncan announces that Macbeth is to be given the title of Cawdor.
Act 1 Scene 2
The witches appear again, waiting for Macbeth and Banquo on their way to the king's court. The two start at the sight of the witches, and are given the prophecy that Macbeth will be Cawdor and King. Macbeth pushes the witches for more information and than the witches give Banquo the prophecy that his descendants will be king. Ross enters and tells Macbeth that he will be thane of cawdor to replace the traitor. Amazed, Macbeth asks Banquo if he believes his children will be kings and Banquo responds that they still cannot be trusted. Macbeth flirts on the fact whether he will have to act to gain the crown or if it will come to him. Macbeth asks to speak with Banquo of the matter privately later.Act 1 Scene 3
Act 1 Scene 3
Duncan hears of Cawdor's execution. Malcolm claims that he died nobly, repenting and admitting his crimes. Duncan thanks Macbeth and Banquo profusely for their actions, and announces Malcolm as his heir. Macbeth realizes that Malcolm is now in between him and the kingship. An arrangement is made for Duncan to dine at Glamis with Macbeth that evening, and Macbeth leaves to alert his wife of the dinner.
Act 1 Scene 4
Lady Macbeth recieves the letter from Macbeth about his promotion to Cawdor and meeting with the witches. Lady Macbeth resolves to convincing Macbeth to do anything to get the crown, and asks the evil spirits to fill her full of evilness and ruthlessness. A messenger tells her that both the king and Macbeth are approaching the castle. Macbeth arrives and Lady Macbeth tells him that the king will never leave the castle and they will kill him, but Macbeth puts off the conversation for a different time.
Act 1 Scene 5
Duncan and the lords arrive at Macbeth's castle. Duncan praises the pleasantness of the castle and thanks Lady Macbeth for her hospitality, who responds that it is their duty. Duncan professes his love for Macbeth and his character, and they exit.
Act 1 Scene 6
Macbeth ponders assassinating Duncan, and decides that the only reason he would kill Duncan would be because of ambition, which is not a good enough reason. Lady Macbeth then enters saying that the king was asking for him. Macbeth says he will not kill Duncan, and she erupts in a fit of rage, calling him a coward and questioning his manhood. She tells him her elaborate plan, and that they will not fail. Macbeth says he hopes that she will only give birth to men, and agrees to proceed with the murder.
Act 1 Scene 7
Banquo and Fleance walk outside the castle after midnight. Banquo says he is tired, but does not want to sleep because recently he has been having bad dreams, which later after Macbeth enters he reveals are about the witches. Macbeth lies and says he has not thought of the witches, and they agree to talk at a later time. Banquo and Fleance leave, and Macbeth hallucinates a dagger leading him to Duncan's chamber. Macbeth tries to grab the weapon, but fails. At the sound of the bell signal from Lady Macbeth, he leaves to kill Duncan.
Act 2 Scene 1
Lady Macbeth waits for the deed to be done, and hears a sound which she is worried will wake the chamberlains. She says that she does not know how failure is possible. She claims she would have done the deed if not for Duncan's resemblance to her father. Macbeth enters, shaken and bloody. He says the deed is done, but he heard people saying Macbeth shall sleep no more, Macbeth does murder sleep. Lady Macbeth is angry that her husband has forgotten to leave the daggers with the chamberlains, and leaves to do it herself. A knocking echos through the castle as Macbeth tries to clear his hands from the deed. Lady Macbeth returns and they retire to their chamber.
Act 2 Scene 2
A drunken porter goes to answer the door to Macduff and Lennox, all the while speaking of drinking's tolls on the body. Macbeth arrives, and takes the nobles to the king's chamber. He and Lennox speak of the night's strange weather, and soon Macduff comes running, announcing the murder. Macbeth and Lennox run into the chamber, and the king's sons arrive. Macbeth exits and announces that he has killed the framed chamberlains out of a fit of rage and love for Duncan. Macduff begins to question his actions, and Lady Macbeth faints. Malcolm and Donalbain plan to run away to England and Ireland out of fear, and Lady Macbeth is taken away.
Act 2 Scene 3
Ross walks outside of the castle with an old man. They speak of the strange events leading up to the murder; the kings horses had eaten each other, an owl killed a falcon, and so on. Macduff enters and reveals that Macbeth has been sent to Scone to be crowned king. The two princes are now suspected of the murder because of their sudden flight.
Act 2 Scene 4
Banquo wonders whether his prophecy will come true, and Macbeth and his wife enter to ask him to a banquet they are having that night. Banquo accepts and says he is going to ride his horse, and agrees that they should speak of the princes. All exit but Macbeth, who asks a servant to bring him two men who have come to see him. He says that Banquo is the only man he fears because the witches say he will be a fruitless crown. The visitors enter, and they are revealed to be murderers hired to kill Banquo. Macbeth asks them if they are manly or angry enough to kill Banquo, and accepts their promise to kill both Banquo and Fleance.
Act 3 Scene 1
Lady Macbeth expresses her unhappiness and sends a servant for her husband. Macbeth reveals he too is unhappy. He says that he needs to eliminate all threats to the throne and urges her to be kind to Banquo because he has planned something terrible for him.
Act 3 Scene 2
the murderers, joined by a third, wait for Banquo to approach. As they do, Banquo is slain, but Fleance escapes.
Act 3 Scene 3
Macbeth and his wife enter the banquet, but Macbeth is immediately pulled aside by the first murderer, who reveals that Fleance has escaped. Macbeth despairs, and then turns again to the party. He then reveals that Banquo has not arrived, then sees his ghost in his own spot. Macbeth begins to freak, which lady Macbeth explains as an illness since childhood. the ghost then exits and Macbeth again composes himself, but erupts in fits again as the ghost reenters. Ross finally asks what sights he was seeing, and Lady Macbeth ushers them all out. Macbeth shares that he fears Macduff, for he was not present, and that he had been paying off a servant in Macduff's household. Macbeth then reveals he will go tomorrow to the witches and question further his fate, and that now all he thinks to do will be put into action.
Act 3 Scene 4
Hecate is angry at the witches for not involving her in Macbeth's prophecies. She then says that they will have to mess with him and give him a false sense of security.
Act 3 Scene 5
Lennox and another lord speak of the murders and Macbeth, whom they truly suspect is the guilty party. The lord reveals that Macduff has fled to England to be with Malcolm and plot against Macbeth. He also reveals that King Edward is planning to send Siward to help Scotland. Lennox shows his support for the two men and their fight for freedom.
Act 3 Scene 6
The witches are shown again, and Macbeth arrives, demanding to know more of his future. The first apparition is an armored helmet saying to beware Macduff, the second a bloody child saying to not fear any thing born of a woman, and the third saying to not fear until Birnam wood travels to Dunsinane. The witches then show Macbeth a prophecy of all of Banquo's future descendents as kings. Lennox enters telling Macbeth of Macduff's flee to England, and Macbeth sends murderers to Macduff's castle to kill his family.
Act 4 Scene 1
Lady Macduff feels betrayed at her husband's flight(which she hears of from Ross), and believes he is a traitor. she tells her son that his father is dead, but he does not believe her. A messenger enters, urging the family to flee, but Lady Macduff refuses. Murderers enter and kill the son, Lady Macduff flees and is chased.
Act 4 Scene 2
Macduff meets Malcolm and begs him to return and save Scotland from Macbeth. Malcolm tests him by claiming that he is far far worse than Macbeth, and until Macduff breaks down and claims that Scotland will fall in both of their hands, does Malcolm reveal to him of the King and his plans to overtake Scotland. A doctor enters and tells of King Edward's ability to heal diseases. Ross enters and tells Macduff that his family is fine, and then lists the awful things that had happened recently until finally revealing that Macduff's family is dead. Macduff breaks down, and plots the ultimate revenge on Macbeth.
Act 4 Scene 3
A doctor and gentlewoman discuss Lady Macbeth's sleepwalking habits. Lady Macbeth enters in a trance and starts to pretend wash her hands and speaks of the murders and how nothing will wash the blood off her hands. They agree to not mention anything about it.
Act 5 Scene 1
A group of Scottish lords discuss that the English army is near Birnam wood, and that the Scottish army will join them there. They say that Macbeth resides in a rage at Dunsinane.
Act 5 Scene 2
Macbeth, full of confidence, claims he has nothing to fear. Seyton enters and claims that an army of ten thousand are on their way to the castle. He orders the doctor to cure lady macbeth of her delusions.
Act 5 Scene 3
Malcolm and his troops are at Birnam wood, and has each soldier cut down a branch as camoflauge to hide their numbers.
Act 5 Scene 4
Macbeth is still very confident in the battle, but after a woman's cry is heard, it is revealed that Lady Macbeth is dead. After hearing of her death Macbeth explains his view on the pointlessness of life. A messenger then comes in, who reveals that he thought he saw a forest moving toward the castle. Macbeth accuses him of being a liar, but begins to fear the upcoming battle because of the witches' prophecy.
Act 5 Scene 5
Malcolm's troops arrive at the castle, and throw down their boughs. they prepare to fight.
Act 5 Scene 6
Macbeth is still cocky due to the witches' second prophecy, and slays young Siward, only boosting his confidence Macduff searches for Macbeth and Malcolm and Siward enter the castle
Act 5 Scene 7
Macduff finds Macbeth, who tells him that he should not fear one of woman born. Macduff reveals that he was not technically woman born. Macbeth fears to fight him, but decides that he would rather die than surrender. Macbeth is killed, Ross reveals to Siward his son is dead. Macduff enters with Macbeth's head and hails Malcolm as king. Malcolm grants all present earlship, and leaves to be crowned.
Act 5 Scene 8
order of tragedy structure
Exposition, Inciting Force, Hamartia (3), Crisis, Tragic Force, Moment of Final Suspense, Catastrophe, Glimpse of Restored Order
11th Century Scotland - fighting Norweigans; witches introduced, Macbeth's valor during war
Inciting Force
Witches give Macbeth original prophecy of Cawdor, kingship; King announces Macbeth as new thane of Cawdor
Hamartia 1
Macbeth and Lady Macbeth murder Duncan in order to fulfill kingship prophecy
Hamartia 2
Macbeth murders Banquo because he believes is threatening to his own children/ line of kings
Hamartia 3
Macbeth returns to witches and demands to know of his future
witches mess with Macbeth, giving him prophecies of dual meaning, false sense of safety
Tragic Force
Macduff joins Malcolm in England and they plan the attack to steal back the throne; Macbeth murders Macduff's family
Moment of Final Suspense
Confident due to the prophecies, Macbeth waits at Dunsinane for the attack of Malcolm
Macbeth's thanes join the rebel army, Lady Macbeth kills herself, Macduff finally kills Macbeth
Glimpse of Restored Order
Malcolm leaves for Scone to be crowned king