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Chapter 23 - The Urinary System
Terms in this set (91)
Name the organs of the urinary system.
Kidneys, ureters, urethra, urinary bladder
What are located on the posterior abdominal wall on either side of the vertebral column at the level of the vertebrae T12 - L3?
What are muscular tubes that extend to the urinary bladder?
Where does the renal pelvis funnel urine into?
What conveys urine out of the body?
What is a muscular sac on the floor of the pelvic cavity that is posterior to the pubic symphysis?
What contains a detrusor muscles that is made up of three layers of smooth muscle?
Name 5 functions of the urinary system
Filter blood and form urine
Regulate fluid balance, electrolyte concentration, and pH
Filters blood plasma, eliminates waste, and returns useful substances to blood
Regulates blood volume and pressure
Regulates osmolarity of body fluids
Name the other 5 functions of the urinary system
Secretes renin, controls blood pressure, and electrolyte balance
Secretes erythropoietin that controls RBC count and oxygen carrying capacity in blood
Regulates acid base balance
Detoxifies free radicals and drugs
What is the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrates such as fats and amino acids?
What is any nitrogen - containing substance that is produced as a metabolic waste and excreted in the urine?
What makes up about 50% of the nitrogenous waste, is a by-product of protein catabolism, and is synthesized by ammonia and carbon dioxide?
What is produced by the deamination of amino acids?
What is produced from nucleic acids?
What is produced from creatine phosphate?
What is the level of nitrogenous waste in the blood?
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
What is an increase in BUN level that may indicate renal insufficiency?
What causes toxic effects as wastes accumulate and can lead to vomiting, dyspnea, cardiac arrythmia, and convulsions?
What is the process of separating wastes from body fluids and eliminating them?
What four organ systems carry out excretion?
Respiratory, Integumentary, Digestive, and Urinary
What does the respiratory system excrete?
What does the integumentary system excrete?
Water, salts, lactic acid, and urea
What does the digestive system excrete?
Water, salts, carbon dioxide, lipids, bile, pigments, and cholesterol
What does the urinary system excrete?
Many metabolic wastes, toxins, drugs, hormones, salts, hydrogen ions, and water
What is a large bean-shaped organ which has a lateral surface that is convex and an inner surface that is concave?
What is the slit in the kidney where renal nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and the ureter enter and leave?
What encloses the kidney and protects it from trauma and infection?
What is the outer first centimeter of the kidney?
What is the inner area of the kidney?
What divide the medulla into 6 - 10 renal pyramids and project toward the sinus?
What is the blunt point of the renal pyramid?
What collects urine from the papilla?
What is formed from 2 - 4 minor calyces that converge?
What is formed from the convergence of 2 - 3 major calyces?
Each kidney contains an average of 1.2 million of these?
What are the two parts of the nephron?
Renal corpuscle and renal tubule
Which part of the nephron filters blood plasma?
Which part of the nephron converts filtrate to urine?
What is a duct that leads away from the glomerular capsule?
What are the four major regions of the glomerular capsule?
Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
What is double-walled capsule around each glomerulus of the kidney that receives glomerular filtrate and empties into the proximal convoluted tubule?
Name the flow of fluid from the point where the glomerular filtrate is formed to the point where the urine leaves the body.
Glomerular capsule to the PCT to the nephron loop to the DCT to the collecting duct to the papillary duct to the minor calyx to the major calyx to the renal pelvis to the ureter to the urinary bladder to the urethra
What receives fluid from the DCTs of several nephrons?
What measures the filtrate formed per minute by the two kidneys combined?
Glomerular filtration rate
What is the fluid formed by filtration?
What is the GFR for males?
125 mL/min or 180 L/day
What is the GFR for females?
105 mL/min or 150 L/day
What percent of filtrate is reabsorbed?
How much urine is excreted daily?
1 - 2 L
What does an increase in GFR lead to?
Increased urine output and causes dehydration and electrolyte depletion
What does a decrease in GFR lead to?
More wastes reabsorbed and potential for azotemia
What factors keep GFR in a homeostatic state?
Autoregulation, sympathetic control, and hormones such as renin and angiotensin
What is the ability of the nephrons to adjust their own blood flow and GFR within external control?
What is controlled by myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback?
What is the process in which the renal tubule extracts chemicals from the capillary blood and secretes them into the tubular fluid?
What is the process of reclaiming water and solutes from the tubular fluid and returning them to the blood?
What are the primary functions of the nephron loop?
Water conservation, generates salinity gradient, allows collecting ducts to concentrate urine, also involved in electrolyte reabsorption
What is the appearance of urine?
Almost colorless to deep amber
Yellow color due to urochrome from breakdown of hemoglobin from RBCs
What is the odor of urine?
Slight smell when fresh but bacteria degrade urea to ammonia over time
What is the specific gravity of urine?
Density of urine ranges from 1.001 - 1.028
What is the density of a substance compared to the density of distilled water?
What is the osmolarity of urine?
Ranges from 50 mOsm/L - 1200 mOsm/L in a dehydrated person
What is the osmolarity of blood?
What is the chemical composition of urine?
95% water and 5% solutes
What makes up the 5% of solutes in urine?
Urea, NaCl (sodium chloride), KCl (potassium chloride), creatinine, and uric acid
What is the normal urine volume?
1 - 2 L/day
What is polyuria?
More than 2 L of urine/day
What is oliguria?
Less than 500 mL of urine/day
What is anuria?
0 - 100 mL of urine/day
What is any disorder displaying chronic polyuria of a metabolic origin?
What results from a high concentration of glucose in the renal tubule and causes a person to become severely dehydrated?
What is a high concentration of glucose in the renal tubule?
What is a chemical that increases urine output and is used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure?
What tests the presence of glucose in urine?
What diagnose kidney diseases?
Renal function tests
What specific thing do renal function tests look for?
What is the volume of plasma cleared of waste in one minute and also measures GFR?
What is estimated from creatinine excretion?
What supports the organs of the urinary system?
What muscle is found in the walls of the bladder?
What are the openings that drain urine into the bladder?
What is a smooth triangular region of the urinary bladder formed by the two ureteral openings and the internal urethral orifice?
What is located at the junction of the urethra and urinary bladder that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
Internal urethral sphincter
What is located at the end of the urinary bladder that is under voluntary control?
External urethral sphincter
What is the external opening of the urethra where urine exits the body?
External urethral orifice
What reflex makes the body void urine?
What is caused when stretch receptors detect urine in the bladder and send signal to the spinal cord?
What is a procedure for artificially clearing wastes form the blood when the kidneys are not adequately doing so?
How does hemodialysis work?
Blood flows through a semipermeable cellophane tube surrounded by the dialysis fluid. Urea, potassium, and other solutes that are more concentrated in the blood than in the dialysis fluid diffuse through the membrane into the fluid which is discarded.
How many sessions does a patient need to undergo hemodialysis?
3 sessions per week for 4 - 8 hours per session
Why must a patient undergo hemodialysis?
Kidneys cannot maintain homeostasis due to extensive destruction of their nephrons
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