The rate of absorption depends on blood flow to the tissue at the injection site.
Accordingly, intercostal > caudal > paracervical > lumbar epidural > brachial plexus > sciatic > subcutaneous.
[Morgan and Mikhail, Clin. Anes., 1996, p196; Cousins and Bridenbaugh, Neural Blockade, 1998, p114; Brown, Reg. Anes. and Analg., 1996, p193]
Transtracheal injection of plain lidocaine (4 mL of 4% lidocaine) through the cricothyroid membrane using a 22-gauge needle attached to a small syringe.
Lidocaine is sprayed into the trachea at end-expiration (Morgan and Mikhail) or during inspiration (Miller).
[Davison, et al., Mass. Gen., 1993, p303; Morgan and Mikhail, Clin. Anes., 1996, p70; Miller, Anesthesia, 1994, p1590]
Barash, 20-40 minutes; Mass Gen 25, minutes; Miller, 25 minutes.
[Barash, Clin. Anes., 1997, p684; Davison, et al., Mass. Gen., 1993, p237; Miller, Anesthesia, 1994, p1545)