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Terms in this set (88)
purpose of closed cerebellar loops?
to check movements such as gait, reaching, and grasping and correct movements if they go off course
what does the open cerebellar loop engage?
which DCN is associated with the closed loop through the vermis/medial cerebellum?
________ of the vermis project to the fastigial nucleus where they have several targets
what would happen if someone sustained an injury to the inferior cerebellar peduncle, causing damage to the reticular and vestibular nuclei?
stance, posture, and gait would be severely impacted
what happens if an error is detected in the first closed loop (in the medial cerebellum)?
the vermis/fastigial nucleus interrupts and makes sure the next movement corrects the error
the vermis is integral for _____
what DCN is associated with the closed loop through the paravermis (intermediate cerebellum)?
the open/lateral loop is associated with which DCN?
the open/lateral loop is most important for _______
small, compact, orderly sulci and gyri
primitive, old deep cerebellar nucleus located down in the center
middle deep cerebellar nucleus
most superior DCN
in what plane are the loops through the cerebellum arranged?
the same loops of the cerebellum are repeated over and over from ____ to ____ hemispheres
intermediate to lateral
cerebellar loops diverge so input goes to the cerebellar cortex and DCN through ________
___________ connects the cerebellar cortex as another input to DCN
what comprises the outputs of the cerebellum?
what are the inputs of the cerebellum?
cortex (contralateral pontine nucleus), spinocerebellar pathways, CN (esp 8)
we have cortical input to the cerebellum via _______
spinocerebellar pathways enter the cerebellum via
cranial nerves (esp 8) have __________ straight to the cerebellum
all cerebellar inputs converge ______ to ____ like a funnel into the cerebellum
rostral to caudal
divergent inputs to the cerebellum:
cerebellar cortex (lateral, intermediate, medial lobes), DCN (interposed, dentate, fastigial)
output from DCN:
cerebral cortex (through contralateral thalamus (vl)), red nucleus (rubrospinal tract), vestibular nuclei (vestibulospinal tract)
rubro and vestibulo spinal tracts are both: (asc or desc)
from the cortex and sacral levels of the SC, things enter in the _______
after entering the pons, things head to the cerebellum via:
inputs for cerebellar circuitry:
mossy and climbing fibers
axons bringing in input from all the starting points to the cerebellum from the peduncles
if mossy fibers synapse in lateral lobes, which DCN is indicated
if mossy fibers synapse in intermediate lobes, which DCN is this associated with
if mossy fibers synapse in medial areas, which DCN is this associated with
nuclei of the spinocerebellar pathways, brainstem, reticular nuclei, pontine nuclei, etc can all be considered:
receive excitatory parallel fiber inputs and a single, powerful, climbing fiber input from the inferior olive
sends a single, powerful, climbing fiber input to purkinje cells
each climbing fiber spike leads to ___________ in the purkinje cells
parallel fiber purkinje cell synapses evoke ________
simple spikes lead to
long term potentiation
climbing fibers drive:
long term depression
purkinje cells _________ DCN, which in turn _________ the inferior olive
mossy fibers synapse onto __________
granule cell axons produce:
parallel fibers synapse onto:
purkinje neurons are spontaneously active, producing:
tonic inhibition of DCN
purkinje neuron firing rate is modulated by:
granule cells and parallel fibers
purkinje neurons are ______, so they provide a source of ________
mossy fibers are ______ to the cerebellum that provide "state of the system" input
purkinje neurons are really good at firing ________ spontaneously
tonic action potentials
granule cell/parallel fiber input onto purkinje neurons produces:
brief EPSPs (that modulate ongoing spontaneous firing of purkinje cells)
EPSPs produced by GC/PF encodes:
magnitude/duration of peripheral stimuli and movement
when input is sufficiently strong to counteract tonic inhibition from PCs, output of DCN provides _____________ to promote regenerative network activity
axons coming from _________ are the only ones that enter through the peduncles that are not considered mossy fibers
inferior olive ----these are climbing fibers instead
the inferior olive receives collateral input from:
descending motor pathways and ascending sensory pathways
almost every passing pathway synapses onto:
responsible for error detection
each purkinje cell receives input from:
a single climbing fiber ----a CF may synapse on up to 10 PCs
what happens when an error signal is sent throughout the circuitry?
a burst of complex spikes is produced in the purkinje cells to increase inhibition of DCN
when an error signal is sent and DCN are stunned into silence, what happens?
positive feedback from the cerebellum is shut off
what happens after the pontine nuclei bring info to the lateral hemisphere of the cerebellar cortex?
it goes to the dentate nucleus
what happens after info goes from the lateral hemisphere to the dentate nucleus:
it goes to the ventrolateral thalamus
where does info end up after going from the cortex to the lateral hemisphere to the dentate nucleus to the thalamus?
back to the cortex
what is the lateral cortex responsible for?
modulation of fine mvmts, motor learning
paleocerebellum and spinocerebellum are other names for:
when info goes from the spinocerebellar pathways to the intermediate hemisphere, where does it go next?
when info goes from the spinocerebellar pathways to the intermediate hemisphere to the interposed nuclei, where does it go next?
red nucleus and thalamus
after info makes its way from the spinocerebellar pathways to the intermediate hemisphere to the interposed nuclei to the red nucleus/thalamus, where does it go?
SC (rubrospinal tract) and cortex
archicerebellum and vestibulocerebellum are other names for:
info travels from the 8th cranial nerve nuclei to which part of the cerebellar cortex?
after going from CN 8 to the flocculonodular lobe, where does info go?
after traveling from CN 8 to flocculonodular lobe to fastigial nucleus, where does info go?
after info makes its way from CN 8 to flocculonodular lobe to fastigial nucleus to vestibular nuclei, where does it end up?
input and output for lateral cerebellum:
cortex (via pontine nuclei) to cortex
starting and ending points for intermediate cerebellum:
spinocerebellar pathways to SC (rubrospinal tract) and cortex
role of intermediate cerebellum
control of neck, trunk, and limb mm
starting and ending points for medial cerebellum
CN 8 nuclei, vestibulospinal pathways
role of medial cerebellum
control eye mvmts, axial mm related to balance and posturing
is the cerebellum necessary to initiate mvmt?
role of cerebellum in mvmt:
regulates precision of mvmt (smoothness, use of force, stabilization, parameter exploration), error correction
damage to cerebellum results in what mvmt deficits:
mvmts erratic in size, force, direction
role of cerebellum in motor learning
inferior olive input and complex spikes increase in freq during the learning phase
medial cerebellum regulates:
accurate of underlying mvmts (vestibuloocular coordination, posture, locomotion)
intermediate cerebellum regulates accuracy of voluntary head, neck, and extremity mvmts, but also:
facilitates antagonist contraction when a mvmt has been perturbed, dampens tremor, and enhances co-contraction as needed
lateral cerebellum regulates:
higher aspects of behavior (fibers mvmts, motor learning and planning, mental agility, smoothness of thought, stability of affect)
how does the cerebellum mature and develop?
from inside out
when is the cortex mature?
within first year of life
when is myelination complete?
not until second year of life
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