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Chapter 7: DNA structure and Replication
Terms in this set (14)
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
The molecule of heredity, common to all life forms, that is passed from parents to offspring.
stores biological information and serves as the instruction manual from which we are built. It is passed from parents to offspring during reproduction, and is the reason children resemble their biological relatives. All life forms—from bacteria to plants to humans—use DNA as the storehouse of their biological information and transmit it to their offspring. DNA is the hereditary molecule of life, establishing the uniqueness of each of us.
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
A single, large DNA molecule wrapped around proteins. Chromosomes are located in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells.
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
The building blocks of DNA. Each nucleotide consists of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a base. The sequence of nucleotides (As, Cs, Gs, Ts) along a DNA strand is unique to each person.
DNA unzips into two parts and splits with the cell. In it's new home each side of the DNA strand attack to matching nucleotides to create 2 exact copies. It is important in puberty and other times of growth as it is the reproducing of your cells.
The natural process by which cells make an identical copy of a DNA molecule.
DNA replication occurs throughout our lives whenever cells reproduce. Because each cell comes from the division of a pre-existing cell, the DNA of the parent cell must be replicated so that there is one copy for each daughter cell. The process of DNA replication is essentially the same in all organisms.
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
One complete set of genetic instructions encoded in the DNA of an organism.
Explain the semi-conservative nature of DNA replication.
The steps of replication happen in a precise order: First, an enzyme called helicaseunwinds the helix, and the two strands "unzip" from each other. Then, the enzyme DNA polymerase builds a new strand of DNA along each unzipped strand. Free nucleotides floating inside the cell's nucleus are added to each new strand in a sequence that is complementary to the nucleotide sequence on the original template strand, A pairing with T and C with G. The end result is two complete double-stranded molecules of DNA. Because each replicated DNA molecule is made up of one original and one new strand, DNA replication is said to be semiconservative
Are the new DNA strands that are created from replication identical to the parent strand?
They should be identical, mutations can occur though. During DNA replication, each strand of DNA serves as a template for the creation of a new complementary strand. The new strand will have bases complementary to the original strand, following base-pairing "rules." For example, wherever there is an A on the template strand, a T will be added to the complementary strand being formed.
What would be the complementary bases to this DNA sequence: ATGCCGT?
To understand how DNA replication works, note that the two strands of nucleotides in a DNA helix do not pair up randomly, but in a consistent pattern: A pairs with T, and G pairs with C. These nucleotides pair preferentially because they are the right shape to form stable hydrogen bonds with each other. Because of this patterned pairing, the two strands are said to be complementary, meaning that they fit together like pieces of a puzzle.
What types of bonds holds the 2 strands of DNA together? What is the significance of that bond type?
a sugar, a phosphate group, and a base. In each DNA strand, the phosphate group of one nucleotide binds to the sugar of the next nucleotide to form a chain of interlinked nucleotides. The two strands of linked nucleotides pair up and twist around each other to form a spiral-shaped double helix. The sugars and phosphates form the outside "backbone" of the helix and the bases point toward its center, forming internal "rungs," like steps on a twisting ladder. The bases in one strand associate with bases from the other strand through hydrogen bonds, which hold the DNA double helix together.
DNA is an information coding molecule. Where is the information held within the DNA molecule?
The bases in the nucleotides ex. GC AT
What is the information within DNA used for?
used to tell your body what to do and how to do it. determines the structure, function of yourself.
What types of human cells can DNA be collected from?
saliva and blood
Why do ancestry and genetic kits only ask for spit? Where does the DNA come from that they analyze?
Use PCR to reproduce parts of DNA they want to measure. Replicates the cell so there is enough DNA for them to measure.
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