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Unit 2 World Civilizations Test
ICC David Thompson
Terms in this set (102)
In the course of his unification of Germany, Bismarck launched wars against all of the following countries except:
The revolution in _________ is clearly the one that realized the Enlightenment principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity most fully.
The machine accepted by the French Assembly for use in executions was designed by _________.
In response to the "Boston Tea Party", Britain closed the harbor, demanded restitution, and passed the so-called Coercive Acts (called the "_______ Acts" in the American colonies).
Toussaint Louverture, a grandson of a vassal king in ___________, had obtained his freedom in the 1770s.
Between 1877 and 1914, US Southern state legislatures systematically attacked African-Americans' rights in respect to all of the following except:
Federal attempts to integrate schools
The ethnolinguistic version of the Enlightenment inspired by Johann Gottfried Herder was:
Given a major boost during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars.
The nation-state of Italy was not fully unified until it established sovereignty over _______ in 1870.
Among the causes espoused by the Paris Commune of 1871 was:
The separation of church and state and a confiscation of church properties.
By 1800, the viceroyalty of La Plata, with the rising port of _________, had grown through contraband trade with Great Britain.
From his base of operations in _________, in south-central Mexico, Emiliano Zapata began to occupy sugar plantations and distribute plantation land to his campesinos (laborers and tenant farmers).
In 1822, __________ proclaimed, "Independence or death!" thereby making Brazil an independent kingdom.
Dom Petro I
Juana Azurduy de Padilla played an instrumental role in the establishment of the nation of ________.
Porfirio Díaz dominated the Mexican government between 1876 and 1880, and again between 1884 and ________.
In 1810, the New Granadans created juntas, or committees, among which the junta of _________ was the most important, and they drove the colonial Spaniards from their positions.
José Antonio Aponte, head of a Yoruba confraternity ( cabilde) in __________, led an abortive revolt against Spanish control in 1812.
As a result of its winning the War of the Pacific (1879-1884), _________ gained access to rich nitrate deposits and mining cities.
The family of Simón Bolívar owned _______ plantations worked by African slaves and was engaged in colonial trade.
The _________ Constitution was promulgated in 1889 and remained in force in Japan until it was supplanted by a constitution composed by Allied occupation forces after World War II.
A ________ sect called the White Lotus sparked a rebellion against the Qing soon after the Qianlong emperor stepped down from his throne in 1795.
In 1899, _________, the US secretary of state, circulated a note suggesting that all powers remain committed to an "open door" to trade in China.
The most prominent of the ___________, which emerged in the 1860s, was Shenbao.
The Japanese occupation of Manchuria's Liaodong Peninsula in the 1890s was opposed by the Triple Intervention, an alliance of all of the following European countries except:
As a result of a British and French raid on Beijing in 1860, a newly created Chinese board, the Zongli Yamen, was to handle Qing ________, and the Chinese were invited to send their own ambassadors abroad.
Through a treaty, the British imposed the policy of _________, by which their subjects who were accused of violating Chinese laws would be tried and punished by British consuls.
The ________ Rebellion, led by Hong Xiuquan and his Christian-influenced declarations, began in 1851.
In April ________ the new Emperor Meiji issued a "charter oath" in which he renounced, at least officially, the restrictive measures of the past.
With the ascension of the infant Guangxu as emperor in 1874 came the regency of Empress Dowager _________.
In 1912, ______, Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece collaborated in the First Balkan War, forcing Ottoman forces to retreat from the strategically important city of Edirne and move back to Istanbul.
Russian serfs were organized into ____, or communes, which oversaw economic and legal affairs, and their dwellings were clustered around a village center.
As a result of its loss in the Crimean War of __________, Russia was forced to recognize the Ottoman Empire's right to full integrity.
In 1839, the Ottoman government issued a series of reform edicts that are collectively known as Tanzimat or "______".
________ was so impressed with Nikolai Chernyshevsky's novel What Is to Be Done? that he referred to it as one of the most influential books he had ever read and used the same title for one of his own treatises.
Following the Revolution of 1905, Nicholas II repudiated the concessions granted in the October Manifesto, especially:
An independent Duma
Shiites are unique in having a small number, about half a dozen today, of ___________ ("signs of God"), who are distinguished by their knowledge of the Quran and Islamic tradition.
The Decembrist Revolt was led by a small number of _________ in 1825, but it was quickly suppressed and its leaders were hanged.
Military officers who wanted reforms
Between 1894 and 1896, the Ottoman sultan armed Kurdish tribal units, which massacred thousands of _______ villagers.
The assassination of ________ in 1881 by a leftist terrorist organization impatient for further reforms triggered a repressive backlash from the next tsar.
By 1903, __________ had enhanced the power and range of his device enough to send the first transatlantic radio message, from Cape Cod in the United States to Cornwall in England.
In 1911 the Austrian composer and theoretician Arnold Schoenberg announced a new, modern style of musical composition that featured Freudian themes along with:
The noise of engines and machines
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels dashed off their pamphlet entitled The Communist Manifesto in the city of ____________.
In the late summer of 1845, Mary Paul, age 15, went to work in a spinning room in the booming mill town of Lowell, _______.
By 1869 the first transcontinental railroad was joined with a final golden spike at Promontory Point, _______, resulting in an astonishing total of 53,000 rail miles in the US by 1870.
In 1900 Sigmund Freud published his highly influential book on The Interpretation of _______, which developed his ideas of the subconscious mind.
An English _________ League was established for organizing sporting activities in 1888.
One social activist ___________, the child of a wealthy mill, drew attention to the abysmal conditions in his/her father's factories.
Ferdinand von Zeppelin's dirigible airship was kept aloft by the incorporation of bags filled with _________ gas and powered by two 16-horsepower engines.
The most famous—and most radical—of British political feminists was _________, who together with her daughters formed the Women's Social and Political Union in 1903.
________ was the crucial first step of a European power—in this instance France—seizing provinces of the Ottoman Empire in competition with the Russians, while officially protecting its integrity.
The British "Raj" was inaugurated when control by the East India Company was replaced by _________.
_______ forces dispatched a squadron that occupied the sparsely inhabited Mekong River delta in 1858-1862, annexing it as a protectorate.
The navigator James Cook, during one of his many exploratory journeys in the Pacific, landed in 1770 on the east coast of ______ and claimed it for Great Britain.
In 1900, Australia finally adopted a federal constitution and became the second fully autonomous British "dominion", after __________.
The Dutch conquered the Indonesian archipelago, finally subduing the most stubborn opponents, the ________ guerillas of Aceh, in 1903.
Some British agents of the East India Company took Indian wives, dressed as Indian princes, and wielded power as local magnates, or __________ (from an Urdu word meaning "viceroy").
The ______ for Africa was a competition among European powers to acquire African colonies that began with the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885.
Portugal used the Berlin conference to expand its coastal footholds in Guinea, Angola and ___________.
The Great Mutiny (also known as the Sepoy Mutiny or as the First War of Indian Independence) began in _________.
_______ published his Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations in 1776
The successor of Louis XVIII of France, __________, took the extreme course of restoring the property of the aristocracy lost during the Revolution.
The Stamp Act of 1765 paid for:
The quartering of troops in the colonies in order to enforce the new taxes.
Fury resulted from a 1791 decision by the white settler Provincial Assembly in Saint-Domingue to:
Not grant citizen rights to mulattos whose parents were free.
In an address to the National Assembly on October 10, 1789, Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotin argued that:
It would be best to abolish capital punishment altogether.
In Tippecanoe, a newly founded town in _________, thousands of Tecumseh's followers from a variety of Native American nations came together, but they suffered a defeat at the hands of US troops in 1812.
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, June 19, 1867, was painted by __________.
Slavery ended in Brazil in _________.
José de San Martín trained the Army of the _______ and, with this army, liberated Chile from royalist forces in 1818.
An anti-Qing and anti-foreign group calling itself the Society of the _________ Fists was referred to as "Boxers" by the foreign community in China
The two key terms in the popular Chinese self-strengthening formulation Zhongxue wei ti and Xixue wei yong meant "Chinese studies for the essence" and "Western studies for the __________."
The culmination of the trend to incorporate Western models into the Japanese _____________ was Natsume Soseki's Kokoro (1914).
The Treaty of ______ between the Chinese and the British in 1842 marked the first of the century's "unequal treaties" that would be imposed throughout east Asia by European powers.
The end of serfdom in Russia would not come until 1861, and the end of slavery in the Ottoman Empire not until ________.
In a reform of the educational system in 1782, _________ made education, from urban primary schools to high schools, free and mostly staffed with clergy.
Catherine II the Great
The more moderate group of political activists in the Social Democratic Labor Party, meeting in London in 1903, called itself the ___________ ("minority", though they were actually numerically the majority) and aimed for the eventual overthrow of capitalism and tsarist rule.
Reformers in Ottoman Empire introduced a system of "life lease" for taxation in the 18th century, mirroring developments that were taking place in the taxation system of _______.
In ________ in the 1700s, one of the two major Pashtu tribal federations revolted repeatedly against the efforts of the Safavids to convert them to Shiite Islam.
In the 1870s, conservative intellectuals broadened the conceptualization of Russian nationality into an ideology of Pan-__________.
The English philosopher Herbert Spencer proposed a theory that came to be called "social ________", which sought to apply the ideas of natural selection to races, ethnicities, and peoples.
The Communist Manifesto declared, "The _________ have nothing to lose but their chains."
The first fully automatic __________ was conceived by Hiram Maxim, an American inventor and dabbler in electricity.
The invention of _______ by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Bernhard Nobel aided in the construction of the Panama Canal (1914).
Although Samuel Morse had already invented a telegraph transmission code, it was only in the __________ that major continental landmasses were linked by submarine transoceanic cables.
1860s and 1870s
The principal spokesman for _________ nationalists in the second half of the nineteenth century was José Rizal, whose novels responded to the Spanish justification of colonialism.
In East Africa, ________ used forced labor for the growing of cotton, provoking the fierce but in the end brutally suppressed Maji Maji Rebellion of 1905-1907.
The Belgian Congo under King Leopold II employed mass forced labor of the indigenous population to extract _______ from the jungle.
Mexico refused to recognize Texan national independence, and the state of Texas entered the United States in ___________.
Louverture became emperor of Haiti, renaming Saint-Domingue after:
Its supposed original Taíno
The Pure Food and Drug and Meat Inspection Acts were passed during the presidency of _________.
Count Camillo di Cavour, the prime minister of _________, was the politician who did the most to realize Italy's unification.
Publication of Denis Diderot's Encyclopédie was difficult because:
It was banned as subversive by the Catholic Church and the French monarchy.
The Paraguayan War of 1864-1870 resulted in the loss of _______ the Paraguayan population.
The commander of an American fleet, Matthew C. _________, arrived in Japan in July 1853, deliberately attempting to impress the Japanese with Western technological might.
The Ottoman vassal in Egypt, Muhammad Ali, rose in rebellion and would have conquered ____________ had European forces not intervened.
Italy's imperialist dreams in Africa were stymied by its crushing defeat at the battle of Adowa in ________, in which one-third of its army was killed by Ethiopian forces.
Some Europeans claimed that, according to the dictates of their "_______ mission", they had a duty to extend the benefits of European civilization to "backward" peoples.
Living on the edge of poverty in many areas, with old trade routes and handicrafts disrupted by the treaty ports, many _______ saw in the Taipings, the Nian, and other local rebellions a desperate way to change their situations.
One of the results of the revolutions of 1848 was:
The election of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte as president of France.
Had it not been for __________, the French government, on the verge of Revolution in 1789, would have been well-financed.
Its debt, used to finance the Seven Years' and American Revolutionary Wars.
Gran Colombia was divided in 1831 into its component parts, which included all of the following except:
The first Amerindian to accede to the office of President of Mexico was:
By the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Mughal emperor's lands had been reduced to the region immediately surrounding _________ and Agra.
The opening gambit of Great Britain's "Great Game" against __________ was the first Anglo-Afghan war in 1838.
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