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homo sapiens sapiens

newest human breed; ancestors of humans today; originated in eastern africa in 120000 b.c.e; no major changes in basic human physique or brain size since; emerged at the end of the paleolithic period

neolithic age

final stone age; took place around 10,000 b.c.e; invention of agriculture; creation of cities; domestication of plants and animals

neolithic revolution

agriculture developed; the succession of technological innovations and changes in human organizations that led to changes in human organization that led to the development of agriculture; 8500-3500 b.c.e

hunting and gathering

means of obtaining food by older human species (before agriculture); typical of band social organization

bronze age

4000 b.c.e.; bronze tools were first used in the middle east; ended in 1500 b.c.e


societies distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture; ability to produce food surpluses; and existence of non-farming elites (social hierarchy); merchant and manufacturing groups


form of writing developed by sumerians using a stylus and clay tablets


cattle and sheep herding societies normally found on the fringes of civilized societies; commonly referred to as "barbarians" by civilized societies


civilizations that arose in the alluvial plain of the Tigris Euphrates river valleys, fertile land, cradle of all civilization


people who migrated into mesopotamia c. 4000 b.c.e.; created first civilization within region, organized area into city states; created alphabet; art; science of astronomy


massive towers usually associated with mesopotamian temple complexes


invading civilization that brought civilizations to the middle east; had kings and a system of law and money


he was the babylonian king that created the fist set of laws to help keep the peace and balance between poor and rich


title of kings in ancient egypt; top of society; held immense power


pharaoh's tomb that he builds; monumental architecture typical of old kingdom egypt; used as burial sites for pharaoh


african state that develped slong the upper reaches of the nile in 1000 b.c.e; conquered egypt and ruled it for centuries

indus river

sources in the Himalayas and mouths in the arabian sea; houses had running water; trade with mesopotamia; developed own alphabet and artistic forms

harappa and mohenjo daro

major urban complex of the harappan civilization; laid out on a planned grid pattern; large cities near the indus river

huanghe river

(yellow river); site of development of sedentary agriculture in china; isolated; regulated irrigation; fertile land; advanced technology; rode horses; skilled in pottery, bronze, coal, iron; invented ideographic symbols


sea faring civilization located on the shores of the eastern Mediterranean; established colonies throughout Mediterranean; devised simplified alphabet (22 letters); predecessor of latin and greeks alphabet; improved egyptian numbering

mandate of heaven

the divine source for leaders; established political legitimacy of chinese by zhou to justify the overthrow of shang


the exclusive worship of a single god; introduced by the jews into western civilization

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