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homo sapiens sapiens
newest human breed; ancestors of humans today; originated in eastern africa in 120000 b.c.e; no major changes in basic human physique or brain size since; emerged at the end of the paleolithic period
final stone age; took place around 10,000 b.c.e; invention of agriculture; creation of cities; domestication of plants and animals
agriculture developed; the succession of technological innovations and changes in human organizations that led to changes in human organization that led to the development of agriculture; 8500-3500 b.c.e
hunting and gathering
means of obtaining food by older human species (before agriculture); typical of band social organization
societies distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture; ability to produce food surpluses; and existence of non-farming elites (social hierarchy); merchant and manufacturing groups
cattle and sheep herding societies normally found on the fringes of civilized societies; commonly referred to as "barbarians" by civilized societies
civilizations that arose in the alluvial plain of the Tigris Euphrates river valleys, fertile land, cradle of all civilization
people who migrated into mesopotamia c. 4000 b.c.e.; created first civilization within region, organized area into city states; created alphabet; art; science of astronomy
invading civilization that brought civilizations to the middle east; had kings and a system of law and money
he was the babylonian king that created the fist set of laws to help keep the peace and balance between poor and rich
pharaoh's tomb that he builds; monumental architecture typical of old kingdom egypt; used as burial sites for pharaoh
african state that develped slong the upper reaches of the nile in 1000 b.c.e; conquered egypt and ruled it for centuries
sources in the Himalayas and mouths in the arabian sea; houses had running water; trade with mesopotamia; developed own alphabet and artistic forms
harappa and mohenjo daro
major urban complex of the harappan civilization; laid out on a planned grid pattern; large cities near the indus river
(yellow river); site of development of sedentary agriculture in china; isolated; regulated irrigation; fertile land; advanced technology; rode horses; skilled in pottery, bronze, coal, iron; invented ideographic symbols
sea faring civilization located on the shores of the eastern Mediterranean; established colonies throughout Mediterranean; devised simplified alphabet (22 letters); predecessor of latin and greeks alphabet; improved egyptian numbering
mandate of heaven
the divine source for leaders; established political legitimacy of chinese by zhou to justify the overthrow of shang
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