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What is its phylum? Subphylum?
What are the three major groups of mammals?
monotremes, marsupials, placentals
what is a characteristic that all mammals have that is used for protection, concealment, waterproofing, buoyancy, behavioral signaling, sensory function, and thermal insulation.
What does hair allow mammals to maintain in all climates? What does this mean as endo/ectotherms? This means that hair also supports _____ levels of energy.
constant body temperature; endotherms; high
Unique mammalian traits aside from hair include many innovations in the ____ ____ ____ for transmitting sound to the inner ear, ____ _____ for nourishing young; a large _____ with neocortex, a _____ for efficient ventilation of lungs, and a highly developed sense of smell
-middle ear bones
Most mammals have intrauterine vascular ______, specialized ___________ and jaws for feeding on a variety of foods, and an upright gait for rapid, efficient locomotion.
Mammals have highly developed ____ ____ and useful adaptations that allow them to occupy every environment that supports life. How many living species are there.
The evolution of mammals from the earliest ____ ancestors is well documented. What was the evolution over the last 150 million years from/to?
-small ectothermic, hairless ancestors to today's endothermic, furry mammals
What provided abundant fossil evidence of mammalian evolutionary descent?
skull structures (temporal openings and teeth)
mammals evolved from ______ and have a pair of ___ ______ in the skull for the attachment of jaw muscles.
synapsids; temporal openings
What were the first amniotes to diversify widely into terrestrial habitats and formed various herbivorous and carnivorous. What were they collectively called?
One of the early carnivorous synapsids gave rise to the _____, who were the only synapsid group to survive beyond the Paleozoic.
Therapsids developed an efficient erect gait with ______ ____ positioned beneath the body rather than on the sides as in lizards and reptiles.
What body changes in therapsids increased feeding efficiency, allowing variety of carnivores and herbivores to form.
body changes in the skull and mandibular adductor muscles
What were the only therapsid subgroup that survived the Mesozoic that had several features to support active lifestyle and higher metabolic rates?
What permits breathing while holding prey/chewing food? Why was this important?
Secondary bony palate on the roof of mouth
-allows young to breathe while suckling
_____ teeth are replaced only once as deciduous and permanent teeth while ancestral amniotes had continuous teeth replacement called ______.
What are the three inner ear bones?
malleus, incus, stapes
___ are homologous to the hyomandibula of other vertebrates that functioned for hearing in early synapsids.
____ and _____ from articular and quadrate bones that previously serves as jaw joint but became reduced in size to better transmit sound vibrations.
new jaw joint formed between the ____ and _____ ( ____) bones, which is the defining characteristic for fossil mammals.
dentary and squamosal (temporal) bones
Hair is essential for insulation and indicates that sebaceous and sweat glands were present to facilitate _______
What is the importance of mammary glands, although there is no fossil evidence to support?
young mammals hatch from eggs, which rely on maternal milk and protection
Dinosaurs were in the _____ and ____ periods while life after the dinosaurs is the _____ period.
Jurassic and Early Crustacean period- dinosaurs
-Modern Period: after dinosaurs
What are the two clades living mammals are divided into?
monotremes and Therians
What does the Therians consist of?
What is different about the mammalian integument and its derivatives from most other vertebrates?
-serves as interface between animal and its environment
-composed of thin epidermis that is protected by hair and a thicker dermis
-outer layers of epidermis become thickened with keratin when subject to contact and abrasions
Where is hair's origin?
in the epidermis
What is characteristic of mammals that is reduced on humans and exists as a few sensory bristles on whales and cetaceans?
What is an epidermal structure but lies deep in dermis of skin?
How does a hair grow continuously?
rapid proliferation of cells in he follicle
What is the function of the dense and soft underhair?
insulation, by trapping a layer of air underneath it
_____ hairs in water become wet and stick to each other to form a protective layer over the underhair.
What are examples of periodic molting?
-foxes and seals shed once every summer
-rabbits have white coats in winter and brown in summer
Which type of horn are found in ruminants, such as sheep and cattle are hollow sheaths of keratinized epidermis that surround a core of bone rising from skull. Are theses horns normally shed or permanent? Are they inn only one sex or both?
-grow continuously and occur in both sexes (may be longer in males)
____ are usually branches and made of solid bone that occur in deer family.
Mammals have the greatest variety of integumentary glands, all derived from the ______.
____ _____ are tubular, highly coiled glands found over much of the body surface of mammals; they are normally absent in other vertebrates.
Where are sweat glands found?
in hairless regions such as footpads and scattered all over body
___ _____ are present in nearly all mammals and vary in location and function across the body. What does this allow for? Where are they found?
-allow for communication with members of the same species by marking territory, warning, and defense signals
-found on the face, legs, reproductive areas, and tails
What type of glands are associated with hair follicles and may be free to open directly onto the skin surface?
What do sebaceous glands produce? What is it used to do?
-produce an oily secretion, SEBRUM, also called POLITE FAT, which does not turn rancid
- used to lubricate skin and hairs, keeping it pliable and glossy
Where are most sebaceous glands found?
Scalp and face
_______ ______ are rudimentary in males and occur on all females
Mammae develop during _______ into much larger mammary glands.
What accumulates around the Mammary glands and form breasts?
What does not develop nipples? How do young obtain milk?
- young lick their mother's belly fur, where milk is released
Structure of teeth in mammals reveals their life habits resulting in _____ dentition for cutting, seizing, gnawing, tearing, and grinding.
Reptiles have ____ dentition or uniform tooth patterns
What are the four types of dentition(teeth) mammals have?
____ have simple crowns with sharp edges for snipping or biting
_____ have mine conical crowns used for piercing.
______ have compressed crowns with one or two cusps for shearing and slicing
______ are larger bodies and variable cusps for crushing and grinding
Primitive mammal tooth formulas is _____ incisors, _____ canine, ____ premolars, and ____ molars. Shrews (some omnivores) and carnivores follow this pattern
Describe mammals replacement/teeth movement.
-originally have one deciduous set (temporary milk teeth)
-replaced be permanent set when skull has grown large enough
Which types of teeth are deciduous, while what are single permanent set(s) that last an animals lifetime?
Incisors, premolars, canines
Describe the digestive system of insectivores
- eat insects and other small invertebrates so have short intestinal tract due to limited ingestion of fibrous vegetable matter
-have pointed teeth to puncture the exoskeleton of prey while anteaters may swallow food whole (not teeth)
What is special about herbivores canines and molars?
Canines are reduced or absent, while molars are broad and high-crowned for grinding
Ruminants (cow, sheep, etc.) have what type of stomach and intestinal tract?
A large four chambered stomach and a long tract for increased fermentation and digestion
Describe the digestive system in ruminants
- plant food is chewed and swallowed down the esophagus to the rumen, where it is digested by microbes and formed into cud that is regurgitated and re-chewed for more microbial fermentation into the pulp
-pulp passes to the reticulum and the omasum, where water and nutrients are absorbed
-the remainder of the pulp is moved to the abomasum (true acid stomach) and small intestines for normal digestion
What is special about the digestive tract and cecum of carnivores?
Is shorter and cecum may be absent/reduced because they have a high protein diet
What is the name of an organism who can eat both meat and plants?
Bats are____ ____ and are nocturnal or crepuscular (active at twilight), a niche not occupied by birds.
Did gliding and flying evolve independently in mammalian groups?
Bats use ultrasonic frequencies from 30,000 to 100,000 Hz (cycles per unit) well beyond human hearing range when they use _______
When searching for food, bats produce _______ pulses per second, increasing to ______ pulses when prey is detected. When else does the pulse frequency increase?
- increases more when bat approaches prey to enable bat to get more information about the prey
Do all bats use echolocation?
No, some just feed on flower nectar and fruits; using large eyes and noses to find food source
How do vampire bats feed?
- have razor sharp incisors to shave away epidermis to expose blood vessels
-Release anticoagulants in the saliva to increase blood flow
Why are pulses separated?
So that the echo is received before next pulse is sent to prevent jamming or confusion
Darwin devoted the books ____ and ____ to human evolution
the descent of man
Selection in relation to sex
What was the missing link between having evidence supporting idea of humans sharing common descent with apes?
Collection of two Neanderthal skeletons
What are some primate features?
Grasping fingers, flat fingernails, forward-pointing eyes with binocular vision and depth perception
What were the earliest primates?
Small nocturnal creatures that may have split from two major lineages: lemurs and lorises vs tarsiers and apes
What is the group "lemurs and lorises" traditionally called?
What is the group of "tarsiers and apes" often called?
Simians or anthropoids
What are the three mayor simian groups?
New world monkeys, old world monkeys, apes
___ of central and South America including howler monkeys, spider monkeys, and tamarins. ____ including baboon, mandrill, and colobus monkeys. ____ include humans, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees.
New world monkeys
Old world monkeys
How do old world monkeys differ from new world monkeys?
Old world lack a grasping tail, have close - set nostrils, better opposable thumbs, and molars in each side of the jaw
How do apes differ from old world monkeys?
Having larger cerebrum, more dorsal scapula, and loss of tail
______ include all apes whole ____ are all hominid fossils placed closer to humans than chimpanzees
How are human jaws different from those of other hominids, which indicates an omnivorous diet?
Human jaws are less robust and have smaller canines
Position of the____ _____, which is the hole in which the spine passes from has shifted to directly below the brain case indicating upright posture and bipedalism.
What other features of humans support bipedalism?
Shorter, pelvic bones, S-shaped vertebral column, longer hind limbs, and parallel digits.
What provided a better view of the landscape and freed hands for using tools, defense, food, carrying young?
What was important about the discovery of Sahelanthropus tchadensis named Chad 6.5 million years ago?
Brain was small like chimpanzees, had small canines, but had ventral foremen magnum to indicate bipedal human
What is the earliest known fossil that dates back to 4.4 million years ago
Ardipithecus ramidus- "ardi"
What characteristics did ardi have?
Long limbs, fingers, toes, and bipedal posture that may have been arboreal
What was the famous fossil discovered in 1974 that falls in the group "Australopithecus afareneis"
Lucy - short bipedal hominid with a brain slightly larger than a chimpanzee
The Australopithecus was found to be _____ ______, with females being smaller than males
What was the morphological intermediate between ardipithecus sp. and Australopithecus afarensis? It was also considered the ancestor of modern humans and other Australopithecines.
What was found in 2010 and dates to 2 million years old, thought to be phylogenetically close to modern human group Homo
What was one of the more robust groups which lived 2.5 to 1.2 million years ago and may be diverged from early hominins? What three specialized characteristics do they have?
Paranthropus robustus- had specialized skull crests, heavy jaws, and large back molars
What is recognized as the earliest species of homo and was adapted to arboreal life and bipedalism? They used tools and a large brain
What is about 1 meter tall only and may have diverge from Homo erected about 13,000 years ago but went extinct in the Flores islands of Indonesia?
How long ago did modern humans diverge from Homo erectus?
800,000 years ago
_____ _____ is known to have spread around Africa, Europe, and the Middle East. It's braincase is larger than other early humans and had reduced brown ridges but still larger than modern humans. They lived when the climate was colder and had long glacial conditions.
What replaced homo heidelbergensis in Europe? What was special about this new species?
-more robust, with heavy muscles and adapted to the cold while primarily eating animals- had similar brain size of modern humans and more advanced tools (worked in groups to hunt)
What group are we today?
When did Homo sapiens come out of Africa?
About 200,000 years aho
In what groups was speech possible?
Homo sapiens, and homo neaderthalensis due to unique skull modifications and genetic changes
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