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Biol 102 Quiz 2
Terms in this set (28)
Reactants capable of interacting to form products in a chemical reaction must first overcome a thermodynamic barrier known as the reaction's:
A cell has enough available ATP to meet its needs for about 30 seconds. What is likely to happen when an athlete exhausts his or her ATP supply?
Catabolic processes are activated that generate ATP
In cellular respiration, electrons are moved along a series of membrane proteins during the electron transport chain. If there was a mutation in the DNA coding for each of the proton pumps of the electron transport chain such that these proteins became non-functional, what would you predict to occur?
Protons would not be moved from the matrix to the intermembrane space and so ATP synthase would not be activated
The energy of electron transport serves to move (translocate) protons to the outer mitochondrial compartment. How does this help the mitochondrion to produce energy?
The translocation of protons sets up the electrochemical gradient that drives ATP synthesis in the mitochondria.
the extraction of energy from high-energy electrons remaining from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle- WHERE DOES THIS TAKE PLACE?
Electron transport chain
When one of the eight Krebs cycle intermediates is added to the respiration medium of living cells, like yeast, what happens to the rates of ATP and carbon dioxide production?
The rates of ATP production and carbon dioxide production both increase.
As electrons are passed through the system of electron carriers associated with photosystem II, they lose energy. What happens to this energy?
It is used to establish and maintain a proton gradient.
Sagebrush is a C4 plant, while wheat is a C3 plant. Based on the type of photosynthesis that would occur in these plants in an arid (dry) southern region of the United States, which of the following is true?
Wheat is expected to outcompete sagebrush in the cooler spring and early summer seasons, whereas sagebrush outcompetes wheat in the hotter mid-to-late summer.
What event accompanies energy absorption by chlorophyll (or other pigment molecules of the antenna complex)?
An electron is excited
T/F- Organelles are required to carry out photosynthesis and cellular respiration in eukaryotes.
In photosynthesis, what is the role of water (H2O)?
It donates electrons to replace lost electrons in the reaction centre of photosystem II
Some cells have several nuclei per cell. How might such multinucleated cells arise?
repeated mitosis without cytokinesis
DNA is composed of four nucleosides: adenosine, cytidine, thymidine, and guanosine. If scientists introduced radioactive thymidine into the growth medium of the cells, it would be incorporated into the DNA molecule
during DNA replication
Masses of noninvasive cells that remain at their site of origin are known as ________ tumours.
Meiosis involves the creation of haploid cells from diploid cells. The haploid chromosome number is created when:
homologous chromosomes separate
The diploid number of a roundworm species is 4. You have a male and a female roundworm that are planning a family. Assuming random segregation of homologues during meiosis and no crossover, how many different possible combinations of chromosomes might there be in the offspring?
With respect to sex chromosomes, human sperm cells contain:
X & Y
what can produce diverse phenotypes that may enhance survival of a population in a changing environment
A man who carries an allele of an X-linked gene will pass it on to
All his daughters
For a hypothetical gene, how do the terms dominance and recessive relate to gene expression and how genes work?
Both alleles get expressed, but the product of the allele with the dominant phenotype masks the phenotype of the recessive allele
Different ratios occur in crosses with single gene pairs or two gene pairs. What types of ratios are likely to occur in crosses dealing with a single gene pair?
3:1, 1:1, 1:2:1
In Drosophila melanogaster, vestigial (short) wings (vg) are caused by a recessive allele of a gene that independently assorts with a gene pair that influences body hair. Hairy (h) results in a hairy body. A cross is made between a fly with normal wings and a hairy body and a fly with vestigial wings and a normal body. The phenotypically normal F1 flies were crossed among each other, and 1024 F2 flies were reared. What phenotypes would you expect in the F2, and in what actual numbers (not ratios) would you expect to find them?
phenotypes—wild, vestigial, hairy, vestigial hairy; numbers expected—wild (576), vestigial (192), hairy (192), vestigial hairy (64)
Researchers found E. coli that had mutation rates 100 times higher than normal. What is a possible explanation for these results?
The proofreading mechanism of DNA polymerase was not working properly
Hershey and Chase set out to determine what molecule served as the unit of inheritance. They completed a series of transduction experiments in which E. coli was infected by a T2 virus. Which molecular component of the T2 virus actually ended up inside the cell?
At a specific area of a chromosome, the following sequence of nucleotides is present where the chain opens to form a replication fork:
3' C C T A G G C T G C A A T C C 5'
An RNA primer is formed starting at the second T of the template. What would be the primer sequence?
5' A C G U U A G G 3'
The proteome is all the proteins produced by an organism. The genome is the totality of all genes of an organism. If the proteome is much larger than the genome, which of the following statements would be accurate?
At least in some cases, a single gene must code for more than one protein
What feature makes organisms less vulnerable to small mutations in DNA replication that are not corrected?
redundancy in the genetic code
If DNA repair mechanisms fail, what is the result?
cancer, defective enzyme, mutation can all occur
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