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Big Era 6 (Study Guide)
Terms in this set (61)
As many as 80-95% of the indigenous population of the Americas died from new diseases from about 1500-1650
Great Global Convergence
Development of enormous expansion of networks of exchange that linked societies and individuals. Virtually every region in the world became interconnected to every other region. Ex: Afroeurasia and Americas and Australasia
Exchange of plants, animals, and microorganisms between Afroeurasia and the Americas
Originating or occurring naturally in a particular place; native.
Included a "re-birth" of art literature and music influenced by classical Greece and Rome
Greatly increased the human's ability to manipulate nature; new way of thinking about the natural world
Challenged long-established religious and philosophical perspectives
a raw material or primary agricultural product that can be bought and sold, such as sugar and silver
1) The Columbian Exchange of plants, animals, and microorganisms between Afroeurasia and the Americas. The Great Dying, many people died from disease in Americas. Europeans gained important crops from Americas
2) The emergence of a truly global economy. The Great Global Convergence linked all major regions to a single web of exchange. Silver was the main currency of global trade and became available to Spain and western Europe from Americas
3) The remarkable rise of European political and military power relative to the rest of the world. Happened because 1) western Europe gained technology and cultural innovations originated elsewhere in Afroeurasia and 2) west. Europe developed new military tactics involving gunpowder.
4) The development of the Renaissance, Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment in western Europe. Helped establish science and reason for the natural world and human behavior. Raised profound questions about sources of knowledge and the ultimate meaning of nature and society
Identify the 4 key transformations that mark BE6. Summarize the change by providing specific examples.
- The Great Dying. When Europeans made contact, spread pathogens and diseases in Americas that American Indians had not developed immunities to, so many died
- Resulted from Colombian Exchange
What led to the population decline in the Americas?
- When Europeans arrived in the Americas, they altered the food chain by introducing new plants and domestic animals.
- America's ecosystem was unable to compete with these invasive species therefore, it's environment began to resemble northwestern Europe's
How did the Great Dying transform the natural environment?
- Africa: African slave traders mainly captured and sold young men and women because best fit to work and reproduce, drained Africa of productive workers. Population decrease
- Europe: Europeans traveled to the Americas, still a minority. Didn't want to be slaves
- The Americas: Europeans brought in African slaves for profits on mining and plantations. They were cheap and plentiful. Population grew and began to be "Africanized"
Explain how the slave trade impacted Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Evaluate all three regions.
- The Western Hemisphere had a lot more slaves than the Eastern, the most in the Caribbean
- Slaves came from Africa in the Eastern Hemisphere. Had some slaves, not as many as Western
Using the map on page 85, explain the impact of the slave trade on the Western Hemisphere vs. the Eastern Hemisphere.
Means rebirth; in this context, refers to a revival of art and literature
An intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements
Worldly rather than spiritual and concerned with the here and now. The basic spirit of Renaissance society
Financial supporter of the arts
Technique used by Renaissance painters which shows 3 dimensions on a flat surface
Leonardo da Vinci
A painter, sculptor, inventor & scientist. A true "Renaissance Man." Interested in how things worked. Painted the Mona Lisa
Sculptor, poet, architect, and painter. Used a realistic style when depicting the human body. the statue of David and paintings on ceiling of Sistine Chapel
Younger than Michelangelo and Leonardo. Learned from their work. Famous for his use of perspective. Filled the walls of Pope Julius II's library with paintings, one was School of Athens
Writes The Prince which examines the imperfect conduct of human beings, takes form of a political guide. He examines how a ruler can gain power and keep it in spite of his enemies. He starts off by saying most people are selfish and corrupt
- Northern Italy has large city-states and towns, so it was urban and the rest of Europe was rural. Since cities are often places where people exchange ideas, they were an ideal breeding ground for an intellectual revolution
- Bubonic plague killed up to 60% of population in these cities. Economic changes. Few laborers = survivors demand higher wages. Few business expansion opportunities = merchants pursued other interests like art
How did Italy's cities help to make it the birthplace of the Renaissance?
- Instead of trying to make classical texts agree with Christian teachings like medieval scholars, humanists studied them to understand ancient Greek values
- Influenced artists and architects to carry on classical traditions
- Popularized study of subjects common to classical education like history, literature, and philosophy. Called humanities
How does Humanism influence the growth of learning?
- Patrons of the arts financially supported artists
- Renaissance merchants and wealthy families were patrons
- By having their portraits painted or donating art to the city to put in public squares, the wealthy demonstrated their own importance
What role did the patrons of the arts play in the development of Renaissance ideas?
- Renaissance men: Educated men should create art. Excelled in many fields (music, dance, poetry, skilled riders and swordsmen) Charming
- Renaissance woman: Should be charming and inspire art, not create it. Better educated than medieval women. Most had little influence in politics
What are the characteristics of "Renaissance Men" vs. "Renaissance Women"?
- Renaissance artists often portrayed religious subjects, but used a realistic style copied from classical models rather than spiritual models like medieval artists
- Greek and Roman subjects became popular
- Renaissance painters used the technique of perspective, shows 3 dimensions of a flat surface
How did the Renaissance revolutionize Art?
A pardon. It released a sinner from performing the penalty that a priest imposed for sins
A movement for religious reform
Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches
Luther and his followers had become this separate religious group instead of continuing reforms in the Catholic church
Peace of Augsburg
Famous religious settlement. Charles V ordered all German princes, Protestant and Catholic, to assemble in Augsburg. They decided that each ruler would decide the religion of his state
His parents wanted him to be a lawyer, instead he became a monk and a teacher. His actions of the 95 Theses began the Reformation
Pope Leo X
Issued a decree threatening Luther with excommunication (not member of church) unless he take back his statements. Luther doesn't and burns decree. He excommunicated Luther
Set aside a marriage
The Church of England with Elizabeth (the queen) as its head
- Renaissance values of humanism and secularism led people to question the Church
- Printing press spreads ideas critical of the Church
- Rulers challenge the Church as the supreme power in Europe
- Leaders viewed pope as foreign leader and challenged his authority
- Monarchs jealous of the Church's wealth
- Merchants resent paying taxes (Church)
- Church leaders become worldly and corrupt
- People found Church practices such as sale of indulgences unacceptable, including Luther
What were some of the historical causes of the Reformation?
- He wrote 95 Theses attacking the church in response of Tetzel selling indulgences as a way into heaven. Became known around Germany. Began the Reformation
- Taught: > All people with faith are equal
> Teachings should be based on Bible, not Pope
> Can interpret Bible without priests
- Luther and followers became Lutherans
Describe the actions of Martin Luther in the Reformation.
- Pope Leo X threatens to excommunicate unless he took back his statements
- Luther refuses to take back statements (recant) and is excommunicated (Church membership taken away)
What steps did the Church take in response to Martin Luther's accusations?
- Elizabeth I restores her kingdom to Protestantism, Parliament sets up Anglican Church
- This church accepted both moderate Catholics and Protestants
Describe England under the reign of Elizabeth I.
- Some Protestants pushed Elizabeth to make more far-reaching church reforms
- Some Catholics tried to overthrow her and replace her with cousin, Catholic Mary Queen of Scots
- Faced threats from Philip II, Catholic King of Spain
- Money. English began thinking about building American empire for source of money. Colonies strengthen economy, not Elizabeth directly.
What challenges did she face?
A Polish cleric and astronomer. Developed the heliocentric theory. For fear of ridicule or persecution, he published his findings the last year of his life because contradicted scholars' religious views
An Italian scientist built on the new theories about astronomy. Built a telescope to study planets. Publish Starry Messenger, described observations
A logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas. Question -> hypothesis -> experiment -> analyze data -> conclusion proves/disproves hypothesis
Heliocentric vs. Geocentric theories
- Sun-centered; Copernicus, Polish
- Earth-centered view of the universe; Aristotle, Greek
The great English scientist helped to bring together the breakthroughs of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo under a single theory of motion
- Medieval: - Up until 1500's, scholars decided what was true or false by referring to ancient Greek or Roman Authors or to the Bible
- Few challenged what was already written from ancient thinkers or the church by observing nature themselves
- Geocentric theory: Earth-centered
- New way of thinking: - A few scholars published works challenging the ideas of the ancient thinkers and the church, started the Scientific Revolution. Observation and willingness to question accepted beliefs
- European exploration fueled a great deal of scientific research, esp. in astronomy and mathematics
- Heliocentric theory: Sun-centered
How did the Medieval view of science differ from the "new way of thinking" in the 1500's?
- Galileo's findings frightened church leaders because they went against Church teachings and authorities. If people believed Church could be wrong, they could question other church teachings
- Warned Galileo not to defend Copernicus's ideas. Silent, but studied. Published book supporting Copernican theory, brought to trial by pope. Found guilty and sentenced to house arrest
How did the Catholic Church react to the discoveries of Copernicus and Galileo?
- Ancient Greek physician Galen wrote about human anatomy without dissecting humans, studied pigs and other animals. Vesalius proved him wrong, he dissected human corpses and published findings
- Edward Jenner introduced vaccine to prevent smallpox. Discovered that inoculation with germs from a cattle disease called cowpox gave permanent protection from small pox for humans. Cowpox was milder, less risks. Used cowpox to produce world's first vaccinations
What were some discoveries in medicine?
A pen name Fraçois Marie Arouet used. Published more that 70 books of political essays, philosophy, and drama. Fought for tolerance, reason, and freedom of religion and speech
Influential French writer, devoted himself to the study of political liberty. Ideas about separation of powers and checks and balances
Passionately committed to individual freedom
Italian philosophe turned his thoughts to the justice system. Argued a person accused of a crime should receive a speedy trial and torture should never be used
A strong advocate of education, publish an essay called A Vindication of the Rights of Women. In it she says women need education to be useful and urges women to enter medicine and politics
The use of irony, sarcasm, or wit to attack folly, vice, or stupidity
Argued that to escape such a bleak life, people had to hand over their rights to a strong ruler. In exchange, gained law and order. Called this agreement where people create a government a social contract
Philosopher who held a different, more positive, view of human nature. According to him, all people are born free and equal, with 3 natural rights -- life, liberty, and property
- Natural rights - life, liberty, property
- Separation of powers
- Freedom of thought and expression
- Abolishment of torture
- Religious freedom
- Women's equality
What ideas/movements do the Philosophes advocate for?
- Tried to improve status of women. Mary Astell published a book addressing the lack of educational opportunities for women. Criticized unequal relationship of men and women in marriage
- Marry Wollstonecraft published an essay arguing that women need education to be useful. Urged women to enter male-dominated fields of medicine and politics
- In Paris and European cities, wealthy women helped spread Enlightenment ideas through social gatherings called salons
- Emilie du Châtelet received an education. By translating Newton's work from Latin to French, helped stimulate interest in science in France
What contributions did Women make to the Enlightenment?
- Belief in progress. Pioneers like Galileo and Newton discovered the key for unlocking the mysteries of nature, allowing growth of scientific knowledge. Successes gave people confidence that reasoning could solve social problems
- A more secular outlook. People began to question openly their religious beliefs and the teachings of the church. Before, people accepted mysteries of the universe as workings of God, then scientists discovered they could be explained mathematically
- Importance of individualism. As people began to turn away from the church and royalty for guidance, they looked to themselves instead
What was the lasting legacy of the Enlightenment?
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