Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
ENGL-4168 test 3 study guide
Terms in this set (51)
What are the main tenets of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), according to van Dijk?
1. CDA addresses social problems
2. Power relations are discursive
3. Discourse constitutes society and culture
4. Discourse does ideological work
5. Discourse is historical.
6. The link between text and society is mediated
7. Discourse analysis is interpretive and explanatory
8. Discourse is a form of social action.
rambling, lacking order
How does CDA bridge the connections between the macro and micro levels of analysis?
CDA bridges Big D and little d discourse by allowing for analysis of daily conversation at the micro level to then bridge to the macro level (CDA bridges macro level thought with micro level analysis -- micro level is representative and reproduces and challenges macro level thought).
Micro level (daily convos/little d) make up macro level analysis (D discourse). It can't happen without Micro level actions; it depends on the micro level to be reproduced and challenged.
Language use, discourse, verbal interaction and communication belong to the Micro level of the social order. Power, dominance, and inequality between social groups are terms that belong to a Macro level of analysis.
Provide five features of power, according to CDA.
Force, money, status, fame, (knowledge, information, authority)
-or- Enact, confirm, legitimate, reproduce or challenge relations.
According to van Dijk, how do powerful groups control public discourse?
Ordinary people are more or less passive targets of text and talk (bosses, teachers, authorities - police officers, judges) who may simply tell them what to believe or what to do. Members of more powerful social groups and institutions, especially their leaders (the elite) have more or less exclusive access to, and control over, one or more types of public discourse. In other words, those who have more control over more - and more influential - discourse (and more discourse properties) are by definition more powerful.
Controlling people's minds is the other fundamental way to reproduce dominance and hegemony.
Recipients tend to accept beliefs or knowledge and opinions through discourse from what they see as athurtizative, trustworthy or credible sources (scholars, experts, professionals). Unless it starts away from one's own beliefs and principles.
Participants are obliged to be recipients of discourse.
In many situations, there are no public discourses or media that may provide information from which alternative views may derive from.
Recipients may not have the knowledge and beliefs needed to challenge the discourse or information theft are exposed to.
According to van Dijk, how do powerful groups control the minds of other less powerful groups?
Some groups may more or less control other groups only to control them in specific situations or social domains.
Dominated groups may or less resist, accept, condone, comply with, or legitimate such power or even find it natural.
Power may not always be exercised in obviously abusive acts of domination but may be enacted in the myriad of taken for granted actions of everyday. Not all members of a powerful group are always more powerful than all members of dominated groups (power is always defined for groups as a whole).
Examples: class domination, sexism and racism are characteristic examples of such hegemony.
What is the ideological square? What are processes of othering, according to van Dijk?
For readings below: Play careful attention to the examples that are presented and how they are
Othering through both positive and negatives. An "in" and "out" group. Emphasizing our good things. Emphasizing their bad things. Mitigating our bad things. Mitigating their good things.
Why does van Leeuwen argue that critical discourse analysts should prioritize popular texts over
'serious' or 'highbrow' texts, and images over verbal text?
Yes, you can make things more explicit by exposing it to more people. Not only do people have easy access to it, it is mainly because people are interested in pop culture.
(Pg. 290): The power of such representations lies Precisely in the fact that they're ideological meanings can be so easily denied by arguments such as that 'it is only a story' or 'only a toy' or that words are 'precise' while images are 'polysemous' (meaning they can be interpreted in so many different ways).
What is a social semiotic theory of communication?
The key to this theory is to not look at language as a system but as a set of resources. We are not interested in grammatical rules but are interested in the way the communicator uses the semiotic resources available to them (language or visual) to realize their interests.
What does it mean that words and images have different affordances or potentials to mean?
Because different modes of communication offer different means for communicating meaning, Image and text can communicate something about broader ideas in a way not so conveniently accomplished by language.
What tenets of Halliday's approach does social semiotics draw from? What the hell is a tenet!!!!
Halliday thought language creates dispositions in people while allowing for more open interpretations of the world. He thought people could see through and around words and concepts that they have in language. Language can represent and constitute the world.
What role does the concept of choice play in Halliday's views? How are those choices related to ideology? How are they related to the fundamentals of Social Semiotics?
Halliday was concerned with social uses of language. When we code events in language this involves choices among options which are available in grammar. Such choices can be ideologically significant. Since language shapes and maintains society's ideas and values it can serve to create, maintain ang legitimize kinds of social practices. Social Semiotics is based on the same set of principles.
What does it mean that all processes of communication are rule-based?
Every single communication has roles and norms. Example, a lecture space has normativity attached to it; how professors should interact, how students interact, what is appropriate, what is not appropriate? Norms of lecture regulate these and we judge interactions based on these -- we based our expectations on these sociocultural norms.
How do the concepts of little d and Big D discourse relate to Critical Discourse Analysis?
Big D, macro level → structures, ideologies, not just language, but how the ideologies of how you should move, talk, talk about in certain situations; ideologies of power are often apart of macro level discussion (Discourse). How do you go from Discourse → discourse?
It has been proved over and over that ideologies of racism (and other larger Discourses) are reproduced in daily conversation; Discourse are very often dependent on the micro level to be reproduced and challenged. If you are doing CDA, you do not have access to ideas/concepts/ideologies; you have access to microlevels
Ex: daily conversations ("I'm not racist but...")
According to Wodak and Fairclough (1999), discourses are comprised of the following. M
Kinds of participants, behaviors, goals, values and locations
The role of CDA regarding power and hegemony in texts.
The aim of CDA has been to reveal what kinds of social relations of power are present in texts both explicitly and implicitly.Research in CDA is concerned with the persuasive influence of power and the ways through which dominant groups in society persuade subordinate groups to except their moral, political, cultural values, and institutions. Within this framework, discourse constructs hegemonic attitudes, opinions and beliefs in ways to make them seem "natural" while they are probably ideological.
What does ideology mean, both in its original and broader meaning?
Look at how it is defined in the book (Blitvich)
Culture and ideologies are filters in which we see the world; there are many ways to
In its original Marxist conception, ideology is an important means by which dominant forces in society can exercise power over subordinated and subjugated groups. The concept has developed a broader meaning over the years to refer to belief systems held by individuals and collectives. It is used to capture the way that we share broader ideas about the way the world works.
What is the role of CDA regarding ideologies in texts?
We know that little d discourse can be lectures, conversations, or anything in which language is used. Here, certain words that are used when a person says them, it connects you to that ideology. Example: the word "Islam" (a religion), may make you think of the Arab culture.
In CDA ideology has been used to describe the way that ideas and values that comprise our broader ideas of the way the world works reflect interests on the part of the powerful. The aim of CDA is to draw out ideologies and see where they may be buried in texts.
Are ideologies only communicated via language in texts?
No, images tend to communicate more for example.
Provide some examples of ideologies (an idea/concept).
Examples: Racism, Sexism, religion even, gender ideology, etc...
Ex: 'Business ideology comes to dominate everything in society - even how we run schools and hospitals. Social welfare, economic equality and quality of civil life become subordinated to the logic of business 'efficiency' which in practice means profit.
Discourses and ideologies and the micro-level, daily interactions. How are ideologies reproduced, contested at the micro-level? L
MCDA would ask what kinds of ideas, values, identities, and sequences of activity are being represented or implied. Often, some of these aspects may be completely suppressed or concealed for the purposes of legitimizing a particular ideology.
What are words connotations?
Word choices have been made by the authors for their own motivated reasons. Provide examples. Ex: If you say that you want to do something different for your birthday this year, that doesn't convey the same meaning as if you said you wanted to do something unique.
How do words connect to big D discourses?
Slightly different from 13. Little d discourse can be any kind of manifestation of language in use. There are certain words that right away connect you to big d discourse;
Racial slurs, homophobic slurs → these single words connect to an entire ideology.
When one says "President Biden" you may think of the presidency/democrat.
The word "immigrant" may lead you to that topic area; migration.
The word "Muslim" you think of Arab countires, the Middle East.
What is overlexicalization? What is its purpose in texts? Provide examples.
Means that if you see the same thing with many different names (usually the problem/target); Bush's announcement → Sadaam Husein was referred to by many different names
The same thing is referred to as with many different names
Trying to overly express this idea
Overuse of a word tends to suggest that something is problematic. The fact it has so many different types of names indicates that it's problematic. Has many purposes: to point to a problem, use a word to fight it, or bring attention to it.
What is suppression or lexical absence? What is its purpose in texts? Provide examples.
Lexical Suppression — when you are not referring to a group or a person at all; this is something that feminism fights against (example: arguing against the generic reference of humanity as "he," which inherently excluded women)
Certain groups are not mentioned when they should be mentioned; they are represented through not being mentioned
Lexical absence — referring to someone, but never explicitly referring to someone
The only difference between these two may be intentionality (has to do with the unconsciousness of bias/prejudice);
If there are absences in terms or other elements, then we can think about why it was the case that the text producer did not want us to think of these.
What are structural oppositions? What is their purpose in texts? Provide examples.
If a particular person in a news text is described as a "militant" or an "extremist" we can understand that such a person acts in the opposite manner of a citizen or a member of a community. Ex: soldier vs. citizen/ Defendant vs. plaintiff/ Parent vs. child/ Teacher vs. student. The good/bad of the participants is usually implied. Perhaps the purpose is to help differentiate the two people or behaviors?
How are authority and co-membership conveyed in texts?
Text conveys authority by stating action is required by law or recommended by experts. For co-membership text uses everyday language to indicate the writer is "like us."
Iconography. Images, just as words, can denote and connote. Explain.
Images denote by depiction of people or events. The connotation is where an image expresses ideas or concepts due to associations related to an object, pose or setting.
What are attributes? How are they related to big D Discourses?
All of the characteristics that people relate to big ideologies -- how they are thought of, how they are referred to by. All of the different ideas that flow outside of a bigger ideology — pg. END OF CHAPTER 2 (there is a section for attributes)
Why are settings used to communicate ideas, connote discourses, and values? Explain and provide examples.
The professor's example was the New York magazine page of an unmarried woman's hands raising the middle finger. The setting in this case was the space used on the page.. This communicates to us the idea of advertising maybe?
Setting says gives a lot of information about how to portray you. Depending on the setting you use, it may convey different things.
Example: To represent someone as a cook, take a picture of them in a kitchen setting./ To represent someone as an academic, take a picture of them in an academic setting.
How can salience be achieved in images? The discursive construction of legitimation (van Leeuwen, 2008, Ch 6)
How do you achieve salience in discourse? One way, overlexicalize. How is this done with images? How are images made salience?
Like in the ring finger add, the placement of words on the ring finger + red nail polish + "middle finger" were foregrounded in a way that challenged conceptions of marriage and women's roles.
Perhaps sometimes elements from images can communicate something that language may not or to convey something in a more impactful way (the unconscious)?
I also stress sometimes because Dr. Blitvich gave us a quote from Van Diejk readings. "Visual communication racism can be much more easily denied, much more easily dismissed as 'in the eye of the beholder' than verbal racism". Does anyone know what this means?
Understand the four categories of legitimation introduced here (authorization, moral evaluation, rationalization, mythopoesis).
"I am your mother"
Morale evaluation —
"It's the right thing to do"
"I'm asking you to stay in your room so that you can get your homework done so that you do well on the test".
Or similarly to the example above, "I can't stay out late tonight because I have to get up in the morning, go to class and take an exam. Using logic to make reasoning behind your decision; the rationalization that you put into a decision.
* the goals of these categories are to legitimize power
Authorization: understand the six types.
1. Personal-based on status or role held in an institution
4. Impersonal-based on law, rules, regulations
5. Custom, Tradition
6. Conformity-peers or celebrity
33. Moral evaluation: understand evaluation and analogy.
Rationalization: You will only be tested on teleological action as an example of instrumental rationalization.
Mythopoesis: You need to understand what this is and be able to categorize a sentence as using mythopoesis as a tool for legitimation. But you do not need to be able to distinguish between the various categories of mythopoesis.
About storytelling; a moral tale. We do not have to be able to discriminate against different types.
Example of George Bush's speech; the entire speech creates. Learning morality through tales
What does it mean to say that social practices are intricately connected to the discourses that legitimize them? The visual representation of social actors (van Leeuwen, 2008, Ch 8)
In class, Dr. Blitvich mentioned it had to do with the image and you (the viewer). Does anyone know?
Understand the symbolic dimensions of social distance, social relation, and social interaction as they explain how people who are depicted in photographs are related to the viewer.
These are on the relationship between the image and the viewer of the image (you)
Understand the concepts of distanciation, disempowerment, and objectivation as they relate to social distance, social relation, and social interaction.
distanciation——— Social distance
Understand the concepts of exclusion vs inclusion, agent vs patient roles, specific vs generic, and individuals vs groups, as they related to van Leeuwen's discussion of how people are depicted in photographs.
These are on the relationship between the image and the viewer of the image (you). You depict people through exclusion, roles, specific or generic, individuals and groups, and categorization.
Generic: understand cultural vs biological stereotype.
Biological stereotypes: things like race
Cultural stereotypes: things like skateboarders
Example from book: Muslim women and how they dress
Group: understand homogenization vs differentiation, even within the context of a group
A group can be presented as homogeneous
Example was given about cartoons -- representing one individual that represents the entire group of people
When presenting an individual, are you representing homogeneity amongst a group (arguing that stereotypes -- biological or cultural -- apply to an entire group) or are you representing an individual as differentiated within a group
domination over others
in a way that is not directly expressed
very clear; nothing hidden
ruling or dominant in a political or social context
to imply something beyond a literal meaning
What is linguistics?
Sets with similar terms
Discourse Analysis Unit 5 (Chapters 9-11)
Communication Exam 2
COM 272 Exam 2 Baldwin
Sociology 100 Test 2
Other sets by this creator
LBST-1102 The Avengers in Hollywood and World Cine…
Film-4220: quiz 1
Study Guide #1: ENGL-4168: multimodality & text de…
ENGL- 3162: chapter 7 & 8
Other Quizlet sets
Ch. 27- Quiz Review
hamlet critics quotes