32 terms

Science Sedimentary Quiz

Mrs. Singh's Sedimentary Quiz
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over time, grains of sand may be compacted and cemented together to form a rock called
sandstone
when sediment is deposited in layers and compacted, ______ is formed
sediment
dissolved materials separate from water and become a natural _______ that binds the sedimentary rock together
cement
Sedimentary rocks form at or near the Earth's ______
surface
The most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock is often its layers, or _____
strata
Rock or mineral fragments are called
clasts
Sedimentary rock that forms when rock or mineral fragments are cemented together is called ________ sedimentary rock.
clastic
Clastic sedimentary rocks can have coarse-, medium-, or fine-grained _______
textures
Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize out of solution, such as sea water, to become rock is called _______ sedimentary rock
chemical
Sedimentary rock that forms from the remains, or fossils, of plants and animals is called ________ sedimentary rock
organic
Some limestone is made from the skeletons of tiny organisms that live in the ocean in huge colonies called:
reefs
Limestone made from the calcium carbonate from skeletons and shells of sea creatures is called _____________ limestone
folliferous
An organic sedimentary rock that forms from the action of heat and pressure on plant material over millions of years is called
coal
What is the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers?
stratification
What are the markings on sedimentary rocks that record the wave motion of wind or water called?
ripple marks
What do we call the structures that form when fine-grained sediments at the bottom of a shallow body of water are exposed to the air and dry out?
mud cracks
Which sedimentary rock type most likely formed from ancient sand dunes?
clastic sedimentary rock
What are the 3 textures of clastic sedimentary rock?
Coarse, medium, and fine
What is clastic sedimentary rock?
sediment that is cemented together with calcite or other minerals
Conglomerate is an example of what grain texture (clastic)?
coarse
What is an example of medium-grained clastic sedimentary rock?
sandstone
What is an example of fine-grained clastic sedimentary rock?
siltstone
shale (clay)
What is chemical sedimentary rock?
minerals that crystallize when the water they were dissolved in disappears
What are examples of chemical sedimentary rocks?
Limestone (calcite)
Halite
Talc
Gypsum
What is organic sedimentary rock?
Minerals and organic material (shells, plant material, etc.) are cemented together
What are some examples of organic sedimentary rock?
Fossiliferous
Limestone
Coal
The shells of mollusks, such as clams and oysters, commonly form _______ limestone
fossiliferous
What is strata
the layers of rock (singular is stratum)
Halite is made of _____
NaCl, or table salt
Halite forms when
sodium ions and chlorine ions in shallow bodies of water become so concentrated that halite crystallizes from solution
What is the scale of coarse grained to fine grained clastic sedimentary rock?
Conglomerate - Sandstone - Siltstone - Shale
Coral create huge amounts of:
limestone