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Bio basic of behavior/ Sensation & Perception
Terms in this set (58)
: It is a process of selecting, organising and interpreting the sensory information based on previous experiences, other's experiences, need or expectation.
: It refers to one's visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions thus, enabling us to judge the distance of an object.
It is our ability to judge the direction and speed of a moving object. Four factors involved are retinal motion, motion after-effect (MAE), induced movement, stroboscopic motion.
Our ability to judge the size of the stimuli correctly even with the change in the distance is known as size perception.
Law of figure-ground relationship
This principle states that we have a tendency to segregate our world in the form of figure and ground. Figure is that part of stimuli which has our focus of the visual field, whereas the ground is background.
Principle of Pragnanz
According to this principle, out of all possible ways of grouping stimuli, we tend to group stimuli in the simplest and stable shape.
It is a persons readiness or a predisposition to perceive things in a particular way.
depth cues available to either eye alone(weaker than binocular cues in strength)
Cues that our brain receives from both eyes.
The angle made by our eyes while focusing on an object is known as convergence angle. Convergence angle for distant and near by objects are different.
According to this phenomenon, when stationary stimuli are presented in succession, it is perceived in a motion. This phenomenon is used to explain movement in perception videos.
Awareness due to stimulation of a sense organ. There are 6.... the normal 5 and sense of orientation of body's position( proprioception and kinesthesia).
Principle of Gestalt
"Whole is different from the sum of its part", implying that organization gives a different meaning to the perception. It is b/c of organization that we are able to perceive complex patterns as unitary forms or objects.
Expectations, emotions, stimulus characteristics, previous experiences and cultural background.
Distance, depth, movement, and size.
A process of perceptual distortion, leading to misinterpretation of the stimulus.
Types of Illusions
Muller-Lyre, Ponzo, Poggendorff, Ames and Moon
Process of perception
Process that aids in understanding the world around is. The 3 stages are:
Theoretical Approaches to explain perception
Top-down processing and Bottom-up processing
A direct approach to the process of perception. Stimuli carry sufficient information to br unterpreted meaningfully and we do not need to rely on our ecoeriences.
Experience driven process, i.e stimuli do not have sufficient information to br interpreted meanningfully.
Gestalt Principles of Organization
The process of perception does not involve perceiving an array of stimuli as an object but it involves our tendency to seek a form or pattern in it.
consciously or unconsciously select some stimuli and ignore others
stimuli are arranged mentally in a meaningful pattern this process occurs unconsciously
meaning assigned to organize stimuli
Name three stages associated with sensation
selection, organization and interpretation
Name the 5 sense organs
tongue, nose, skin, eyes and ears
1 involvement of sense organs of the organism 2 presence of stimuli in the physical environment constructing knowledge out of raw material 3 initial contact i e contact without meaning are all components of...
The literal meaning of the word Gestalt
form or configuration
Gestalt psychology is...
The 9 factors that affect perception are...
1 expectation 2 depth 3 errors 4 movement 5 size 6 stimulus 7 culture 8 emotions 9 motivation
the scientific study of mind and behavior
The word " psychology"
comes from the Greek word " psyche" meaning life and " logos" meaning explanation
cues that our brain receives from one eye only
is a person's readiness or a predisposition to perceive things in a particular way
our ability to attend to a stimulus for a longer period of time without being distracted
the process by which attention is focused on stimulus of ongoing interest while ignoring other irrelevant stimuli
defense that gives us information about the location of our body parts with respect to one another and allows us to perform movement
ability to discriminate properly the details in the field of vision
the amount of information we process every 60 seconds
the amount of information we are aware of and can handle every 60 seconds
System One Thinking
our automatic way of perceiving safety in danger and navigating a large amount of information to be able to function. Some refer to this type of thinking as necessary mental shortcuts
System Two Thinking
reflective thinking ; controlled, effortful, slow ; usually conscious ; logically coherent, governed by rules ; lazy, difficult to engage ; who we think we are
senses of the orientation of the body's position
proprioception and kinesthesia
the translation of a physical energy into electrical pulses by specialized receptor cells
one spot of the retina where the nerves of the eye converge to form the optic nerve
how information about the stimuli enters sense organs
Name 3 aspects of perceptual process
1 selecting 2 organizing 3 interpreting
Name the 2 aspects of perceptual output
1 over output: Behavior 2 covert output: attitude, beliefs
Name 7 Laws of Gestalt Principles
1 Law of figure ground relationship 2 law of proximity 3 law of good figure pragnanz and symmetry 4 law of continuation 5 law of common fate 6 law of closure 7 law of similarity
when an object moves its image on retina also moves
motion after-effect (MAE)
When you fixate your gaze on a moving object for some time ( a few seconds to a minute) and then move your gaze to a stationary object. The stationary object will be perceived as moving in opposite direction to the original moving object.
when a smaller stationary body is surrounded by larger moving body then smaller body is perceived to move in the direction opposite of the larger body.
apparent movement (phenomenal motion)
when stationary stimuli are presented in succession, it is perceived in a motion.
size - distance invariance hypothesis (SDIH)
the perceived size of a stimulus is proportional to perceive distance
used to judge size and the distance and depth of a stimuli
theory of direct perception
the correlation between perceived size and perceived distance (in sight) is attributed to the correlation between the specific variables of stimulation which governs these precepts and the particular situation
Muller-Lyre, Ponzo, Ebbinghaus, Ames Room, Moon, Poggendorff are all errors of perception in...
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