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term used by John L. O'Sullivan to express the popular belief that the US had a divine mission to extend its power and civilization across the breadth of North America; spurred by nationalism, population increase, rapid economic development, technological advances, and reform ideals
brought 300 families into Texas and began a steady migration of American settlers into the frontier territory; 1830, Americans outnumbered native Texans 3 to 1
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
dictator of Mexico in 1834, abolished the federal system of government; insisted on enforcing Mexican laws in Texas
led a group of American settlers in a revolt against Houston; declared Texas to be an independent republic in 1836
Mexican army led by Anna attacked the Alamo in San Antonio, killing everyone; later, Anna was captured and forced to sign a treaty that recognized Texan independence and granted the new republic all the territory north of the Rio Grande
(1841-1845) President, southern Whig who was worried about the growing influence of the Brits in TX; worked to annex Texas but the Senate rejected his treaty of annexation in 1844
"battle of the maps"; conflict between rival groups of lumbermen on the Maine-Canadian border
Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)
US Secretary of State Daniel Webster and British ambassador Lord Alexander Ashburton created a treaty splitting New Brunswick territory into Maine and British Canada; also settled boundary of the Minnesota territory (giving iron-rich Mesabi range to US)
on Pacific Coast stretching as far north as the Alaskan border; claimed by Spain, Russia, GB and US
"Fifty-four Forty or Fight!"
Polk wanted all of Oregon, and ran on a promise to fight Britain if America was denied the territory
James K. Polk
dark horse Democratic candidate; favored getting Texas, getting all of Oregon, and getting California, beat Whig candidate Henry Clay of KY
Rio Grande; Nueces River
Mexico refused to sell California to US thinking that Texas' southern border was on the Nueces River; Polk and special envoy to Mexico City John Slidell, asserted that the border of TX is to the south, along the Rio Grande
Mexican War (1846-1847)
when a Mexican army crossed the Rio Grande and captured an American army patrol, killing 11, Polk used the incident to go to war, a war approved by both houses in Congress overwhelmingly
John C. Fremont
with a rag-tag group of troops, overthrew Mexican rule in North California and claimed the area to be an independent republic with a bear on its flag=the Bear Flag Republic
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)/Mexican Cession
Mexico would recognize the Rio Grande as the southern border of TX; US would take possession of California and New Mexico (Mexican Cession); 15 million paid by US to Mexico and assumption of claims
1846, PA Congressman David Wilmot proposed that a bill be amended to forbid slavery in any of the new territories taken from Mexico; passed House twice but failed to pass Senate
1852 President, adopted prosouthern policies and dispatched 3 American diplomats to Ostend, Belgium where the diplomats secretly negotiated to buy Cuba from Spain; leaked to US press and provoked angry reactions from Anti-Slavery Congressmen
Ostend Manifesto (1852)
Polk wanted to buy Cuba for 100 million from Spain, but Spain refused to sell the last part of its former empire
William Walker, a southern adventurer, tried to take Baja California from Mexico in 1853; took Nicaragua to develop a proslavery empire but collapsed when he was killed by Honduran authorities
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850)
GB and US said that neither nation would or could attempt to take exclusive control of any future canal route in Central America
Gadsen Purchase (1853)
Pierce added a strip of land to the American Southwest for 10 million; South New Mexico and Arizona
California, Colorado, Nevada, Black Hills of the Dakotas, where gold or silver rushes began; boomtowns started up
San Francisco, Denver, Salt Lake City created because of gold rush or natural resources
industrialization of 1840s on created shoes, sewing machines, ready-to-wear clothing, firearms, precision tools, and iron products for railroads, etc.
Railroads; federal land grants
railroads became America's largest industry, required immense amounts of capital and labor and gave rise to complex business organizations; local and state governments gave tax breaks and special loans to finance growth of railroads; 1850, US gave 2.6million acres of federal land to build the Illinois Central railroad from Lake Michigan to Gulf of Mexico, first land grant
Matthew C. Perry; Japan
sent the Commodore to Japan to get the country to open up its ports to trade with Americans; got a treaty that opened two Japanese ports to US vessels
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