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GCSE AQA Biology- Ecology Part 2
Organisation of an ecosystem amsh
Terms in this set (33)
What is biodiversity?
The variety of all different species on Earth or in an ecosystem
Why does a high biodiversity maintain a stable community?
Species depend on each other for food and shelter
What are the factors that are changing which threaten biodiversity?
Availability of water, temperature, atmospheric gases
Why are the factors affecting biodiversity changing?
Changes in the season, geographic activity (volcanoes, storms), human interaction
What is pollution doing?
Killing plants and animals
When or where can pollution occur?
In water from sewage, fertilisers or toxic chemicals, in air from gases, on land from landfill and toxic chemicals
What is overexploitation?
When humans take too many resources out of the environment
What is the effect of overexploitation and why?
It reduces biodiversity because not enough nutrients are left for other animals and plants
What is the effect of building, quarrying, farming and dumping waste?
It reduces the amount of land available for animals
Why does producing compost reduce biodiversity?
It destroys peat bogs, reducing habitat of the organisms living there
What does the burning and decay of peat lead to?
The release of carbon dioxide
Why has deforestation occurred in tropical areas?
To provide land for cattle and rice fields , to grow crops which biofuel can be produced from
What is global warming?
The gradual increase in the temperature of the Earth
What do scientists think the causes of global warming are?
The changes in gases in the atmosphere
What are the changes of gases in the atmosphere caused by?
Pollution and deforestation
What are the gases that cause global warming?
Methane and carbon dioxide
What are the biological consequences of global warming?
Loss of habitat when low lying areas are flooded by rising sea levels, changes in the distribution of species when an areas temperature or rainfall has changed, changes in the migration patterns of animals
What are the steps scientists and governments have taken to conserve biodiversity?
Setting up breeding programs, protecting rare habitats, encouraging farmers to keep margins and hedgerows in fields, reducing carbon emissions, reducing the rate of deforestation, recycling resources
What is food security?
Ensuring the world's population is supplied with enough food to be healthy
What are the factors that are making it harder to supply the world's population with food?
Increasing birth rate, changing diets in developed countries, new pests and pathogens affecting farming, changes in weather, cost of agricultural supplies
What is a pyramid of biomass used to show?
The amount of biomass in each trophic level of a food chain.
Why do losses of biomass occur?
Some of the food taken in is lost as faeces, large amounts of glucose are used in photosynthesis, some material is lost in excretion
Why does a loss of biomass help to shape the pyramid of biomass?
The loss of biomass and reduction in energy means there are fewer organisms in the higher trophic levels
How can the efficiency of food production be increased?
By reducing the energy transfer from animals to the environment by limited the movement of animals and controlling the temperature of their surroundings
How does factory farming enforce the things you can do to increases food production?
Raising chickens in cages, calves in pens and giving them high protein foods to increase growth
What are the regulations to stop fish numbers decreasing?
Control the size of nets to ensure only adult fish are caught, set fishing quotas
What does biotechnology allow?
It allows microorganisms to be grown in large quantities for food
What are microorganisms for biotechnology grown in?
What is the fungus used to make mycoprotein?
What is mycoprotein used to make?
What are the properties of mycoprotein?
Protein rich, low in fat, high in fibre, suitable for vegetarians
How is fusarium used in mycoprotien grown in a fermenter?
On a glucose syrup, in aerobic conditions, then is harvested and purified
What can GM crops be used for in food production?
To provide more food or food with and improved nutritional value
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