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Members of which of the following animal groups were among the first to inhabit land and were ancestors of the reptiles
a) amphibia
b) arthropoda
c) aves
d) mammalia
e) echinoderms
If 2n=48 for a particular cell, then the chromosome number in each cell after meiosis would be
a) 96
b) 48
c) 24
d) 12
e) 6
Vascular plants with spores borne in sporangia on the underside of leaves are characteristic of which of the following plant groups?
a) mosses
b) golden algae
c) flowering plants
d) ferns
e) conifers
If an invertebrate possesses nephridia as an excretory system, skin as a gas exchange system, and a closed circulatory system, the animal is most likely to be
a) a snail
b) a planarian
c) an earthworm
d) a grasshopper
e) convergent evolution
The nucleolus functions in the production of
a) the Golgi apparatus
b) microtubules
c) mitochondria
d) ribosomes
e) endoplasmic reticulum
Fats are emulsified by which of the following substances synthesized by the liver
a) cholesterol
b) hydrochloric acid
c) lipase
d) bile salts
e) glycerol
Which of the following is true of humoral immunity but not of cell-mediated immunity
a) it is active in the early years of a person's life
b) it involves the activity of killer T-cells
c) antigens are recognized in the lymph nodes
d) antibodies are produced in response to antigens
e) virus-infected cells are the primary targets
Which of the following best describes a fern gametophyte?
a) its cells are haploid
b) it lacks chlorophyll
c) it is tough and woody
d) it is larger than the sporophyte
e) it can withstand severe drying
To observe the process of mitosis in plant root cells, a biologist should examine the plant's
a) root hairs
b) Casparian strip
c) root cap
d) zone of maturation
e) apical meristem
In plants, the cells in which the greatest quantity of organic nutrients are translocated are
a) companion cells
b) tracheids
c) trichomes
d) seive tube elements
e) presence of walls of major blood vessels
Warning coloration is most effective against vertebrate predators that are
a) color-blind
b) able to learn through trial and error
c) highly dependent on olfactory sensation
d) camouflaged
e) nocturnal hunters
If a stimulus on the receptor portion of a sensory neuron is above the threshold level, a further increase in the intensity of this stimulus will most likely cause the
a) frequency of impulse production to increase
b) strength of the neuronal impulse to increase
c) impulse to move faster
d) neuron membrane to become less permeable to sodium
e) neuron membrane to become more negatively polarized
The appearance of a fertile, polyploid individual within a population of diploid organisms is a possible source of a new species. If this individual is capable of reproducing to form a new population, scientists would consider this to be an example of
a) allopatric speciation
b) sympatric speciation
c) polygenic drift
d) genetic drift
e) hardy-weinberg equilibrium
Which of the following is least likely to be associated with diabetes mellitus
a) insulin receptors are insensitive to insulin
b) Urinalysis indicates a high concentration of sugar in urine
c) pancreatic islet cells are destroyed
d) liver cells absorb sugar from the blood at a rate that is greater than normal
e) muscle cells readily oxidize fats and proteins
The success of tracheophytes on land is probably due to the appearance of which of the following?
a) asexual reproduction
b) vascular tissue
c) photosynthesis
d) gametes
e) rhizoids
All of the following statements about a haploid cell in a plant are correct EXCEPT:
a) it may have either an odd or even number of chromosomes
b) It may function as a gamete
c) it may have been formed as the result of a meiotic division
d) it may undergo meiosis to produce gametes
e) it may undergo mitosis
There is some evidence that interferon may be effective against certain forms of cancer. This finding suggests that some cancers may involve
a) viruses
b) bacteria
c) uric acid deposition
d) allergic reactions
e) an overproduction of white blood cells
In a mammalian embryo, the somites give rise to
a) the notochord
b) the central nervous system
c) the lining of the mouth
d) the eyes
e) muscles and vertebrae
Which of the following best describes the function of cholinesterase in neurotransmission?
a) it decomposes, providing a source of choline for muscular contraction
b) it binds acetylcholine to receptors on the post-synaptic membrane
c) it blocks acetylcholine reception on the post-synaptic membrane
d) it breaks down acetylcholine, preventing continual neurotransmission
e) it releases ATP from acetylcholine, providing energy for neurotransmission
In humans, the largest amount of carbon dioxide produced in the cells is carried to the lungs as
a) carbaminohemoglobin
b) CO2 gas in solution in plasma
c) CO2 gas in the red blood cells
d) bicarbonate in the plasma
e) bicarbonate in the red blood cells
In mosses, unlike angiosperms, the developing sporophyte is
a) haploid in chromosome number
b) part of the gametophyte generation
c) covered by a seed coat
d) dependent on the gametophyte for nutrients
e) the structure that becomes an independent plant
Which of the following would occur as a result of increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system?
a) accelerated digestion
b) decreased heart rate
c) increased adrenalin secretion
d) increased salivation
e) decreased glucose release by the liver
The process by which some bacteria use nitrates for their own respiration and release nitrogen into the atmosphere is
a) ammonification
b) excretion
c) assimilation
d) denitrification
e) nitrogen fixation
Within the cell, many chemical reactions that, by themselves, require energy input (have a positive free-energy change) can occur because the reactions
a) may be coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP
b) take place very slowly
c) take place when the cells are at unusually high temperatures
d) are catalyzed by enzymes
e) are aided by various metal ions that act as catalysts
Embryonic induction is best illustrated by which of the following
a) formation of the lens in the ectoderm after contact with the underlying optic cup
b) replacement of cartilage by bone
c) lysosomal action on the degenerating tail of a tadpole
d) development of the amnion surrounding the embryo
e) development of the mesoderm into the notochord
A hormone that brings about the formation of corpus luteum
a) LH (luteinizing hormone)
b) FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
c) testosterone
d) adrenaline
e) progesterone
A pituitary hormone that causes ovulation to occur
a) LH (luteinizing hormone)
b) FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
c) testosterone
d) adrenaline
e) progesterone
(lab) The rate of pyruvic acid foration fluctuates because
a) all glucose has reacted
b) all enzymes have been used up
c) the reaction is accelerate by positive feedback
d) the reaction is affected by negative feedback
e) coenzymes have begun to function
(lab) Which of the following best accounts for the shape of the solid line between points A and D?
a) after ten minutes the cellular enzymes became ineffective
b) respiration became uncontrolled
c) ATP acted as an allosteric inhibitor on one or more of the enzymes
d) the measurements of pyruvic acid were unreliable
e) the cells required more glucose than was being provided
(population graph) Over the next 10-15 years, the stabilization of Country I's population at its current size would require that
a) infant mortality be reduced to about half the present level
b) the death rate be reduced drastically
c) each couple produce fewer children than the number required to replace themselves
d) about 15 years be added to the life expectancy of each person
e) couples have an average of only 3 children
The concentration of all gibberellins 65 days after planting is approximately
a) 5 ng/gram
b) 10 ng/gram
c) 20 ng/gram
d) 120 ng/gram
e) 150 ng/gram
Which of the following is a correct conclusion that can be drawn from data in figures 1, 2, and 3?
a) Most of the increase in the concentration of all gibberellins 40 to 45 days after planting is due to an increase in the concentration of GA1
b) The concentration of all gibberellins is three times as great at 75 days as it is at 30 days after planting
c) an increase in GA1 levels occurs a day or two before the seedlings start to grow rapidly
d) an increase in the concentration of GA1 inhibits the synthesis of other gibberellins
e) the concentration of GA1 is a thousand times as great as 45 days as it is at 30 days after planting
Which of the following is a correct conclusion that can be drawn based only on the data in Figure 4
a) Seedling growth rates decrease between 50 and 80 days after planting at all concentrations of the inhibitor
b) the greater the inhibition of GA1 synthesis, the lower the plant height after 80 days
c) the spraying of GA1 on seedlings results in an increase in seedling growth rates
d) the inhibitor kills the seedlings when it is applied in very high concentrations
e) the growth of the seedlings is directly proportional to the concentrations of inhibitor