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Ecology- UKY Chapter 15
Terms in this set (58)
-are highly aggressive defenders of the acacia plants
Fungi that are closely associated with the roots of some plants are called___ fungi. They are in a mutualistic relationship with the plants.
Match the plant resource with the benefit it provides the acacia ant.
Beltian bodies- source of oils and proteins
thorns- living space
foliar nectaries- source of sugars and liquids
Corals provide_____ for their crustacean partners.
-mucus high in lipid content
Which of the following can be involved in mutualistic relationships with plants?
Honeyguides alert honey gathers to information on the distance to a bee nest, the ____ the human must travel to arrive at the nest, and notification of when they have arrived at the bee nest.
When Inouye and Taylor removed ants from the aspen sunflower
-there was more seed predation
Match the mutualistic organism with its function:
Acacia ant- drives away herbivorous insects from the acacia plant
bees- pollinate the acacia plant
mycorrhizae- increase nutrient uptake from the soil into the plant
bacteria- allow for nitrogen fixation
Nectar producing structures that are outside of the flowers are called___ nectaries
Like mycorrhizal fungi, corals receive____from zooxanthellae.
Match the term on the left with the BEST definition from the right:
-mutualism: interactions between individuals of different species that are mutually beneficial
-facultative mutualism: while the interaction between species is beneficial, it's not necessary for survival
-obligate mutualism: interaction between two species where survival depends o the interaction
Mycorrhizae are important to plants because they increase....
-plant access to nutrients such as nitrogen and water
In Africa, the Boran are guided to bee nests by the greater_____. These animals in turn receive access to the bee nests.
Which of the following is incorrect?
A. corals produce ammonium through the process of photosynthesis
B. corals that harbor zooxanthellae do not excrete significant amounts of ammonium
C. zooxanthellae absorb ammonium from seawater
D. ammonium is a waste product of protein metabolism in corals
E. corals that do not harbor zooxanthellae continuously excrete ammonium into their environment
In the mutualistic relationship between crabs and corals, how do the crabs provide protection to the corals?
-direct attack to the sea star's spines and tube feet
The scientist who showed that removing crabs from their coral partners resulted in greater tissues death in the corals in named John....
T/F: The only benefit corals receive from their mutualistic relationship with crabs in protection from large predators.
In the presence of crabs, corals produced more____, which act as a food source for the crabs.
The researcher who studied the efficacy of crustaceans to repel sea star attacks on corals is named:
Ants on aspen sunflower can protect the sunflower seeds from predation by...
-certain fly species
-certain moth species
Keeler's approach to representing the cost and benefits of mutualism includes 3 types of mutualists. Match the type of mutualist with its description.
1. successful- give and receive measurable benefits to another organism
2. unsuccessful- give benefits to another organism but do not receive benefits themselves
3. nonmutualist- do not give or receive benefits from a partner organism
-lay eggs in the thorn of the acacia plant
Because ants associated with the aspen sunflower can also tend aphids on other plant species as well as collect nectar from other flower species, they are considered to be___ mutualists
The typical behavior pattern shown by the greater honeyguide begins by the....
-honeyguide flying close to the human and calling
Work done by Lynn Margulls and colleagues suggest that_____ were originally mutualistic partners with eukaryotic cells, and later became organelles.
-mitochondria and chloroplasts
Corals contain large quantities of lipids, much of which is released with the ___ that is exuded onto the coral surface.
According to Keeler, mutualism persists between Cape Buffaloes and cattle egrets because the fitness of______
-Cape Buffaloes and egrets that are involved in mutualism is greater than those organisms that are nonmutualistic
(H)(1-A)(1-D)-Ia+Id is the selective coefficient for..
-a successful mutualist
Using Keeler's selective coefficients to describe the mutualism between ants and plants, D is equal to...
-protection provided to plant tissues by other defenses, such as thorns
Sunflowers that are subject to high levels of damage from____ are more likely to invest in nectar and nectaries that attract ants for protection.
In Keeler's equation for the fitness of mutualists, wmu is...
-the fitness of unsuccessful mutualists
In an experiment done with red clover, Kay Hardie grew mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal fungi in the presence of unlimited nutrient availability. What were the results of the experiments?
-removing fugal hyphae reduced rates of transpirations
-results indicated a direct role of mycorrhizae in the water relations of plants
Both the extrafloral nectaries of the aspen sunflower and a similar structure in the swollen thorn acacia provide the sugar called____, along with amino acids, to ants
In a "less mutualistic" relationship between a plant and mycorrhizal fungus, the fungus would receive an____ or greater quality of photosynthetic product in trade for delivery of a lower quality of nutrients
The results of Johnson's study of mycorrhizae and nutrient availability....
-support the functional equilibrium model
-suggest that plants growing in fertilized soil will allocate less energy to mycorrhizae
In the graph shown, the lines show grass species grown with and without mycorrhizae. The higher water potential shown "with mycorrohizae" may be die to greater plant root growth resulting from access to the nutrient_____ provided by the fungi.
When the mycorrhizal fungus produces exchange sites between plant and fungus, hypae or fungal filaments, these are called____mycorrhizal fungi (AMF).
____shoots on acacia plants produce flowers. Foliar nectaries and Beltian bodies are found on _____shoots.
Mycorrhizae appear in the fossil record around____ years ago.
The middle graph indicates that as the distance to a bee's nest decreases the distances between stops:
Janzan's experiments on acacia ants and plant mutualism showed...
-sucker survival was significantly higher in the presence of ants
Why were mycorrhizae fungi from both unfertilized and fertilized soil used in the experiment depicted?
-the characteristics of mycorrhizae from unfertilized soil and fertilized soil might be different
Acacia performance is greater when acacia ants are present. When ants are absent, there tend to be_____ herbivorous insects on the plants than when the ants are present.
The mutualistic association between humans and honeyguides may have evolved from an earlier association of the bird with the ...
When a honeyguide arrives at a bee nest, it makes a few indication calls and then remains_____
Aspen sunflower buds are vulnerable to late spring____, which may keep the relationship between the sunflower and ants facultative
Raine, Willmer, ad Stone found that in the acacia plant, new inflorescences lack a potential ant attractant (nectar), while they do contain a chemical____that deters ants.
The scientists who investigated the possible conflicts between mutualists of the swollen thorn acacia are Nigel Raine, Pat Willmer, and Graham ....
The top graph indicates that if a bee nest is far from the honeyguides' current location...
-the honeyguide stays in sight of the human for a longer period of time
Corals induce zooxanthellae to release organic nutrients by...
-releasing chemicals that change the permeability of the zooxanthellae membrane
In the graph shown, the lines show grass species grown with and without mycorrhizae. Which of the following is true?
-grass grown with mycorrhizae had higher leaf water potentials than those grown without
The results of Johnson's study of mycorrhizae and soil nutrient levels showed that...
-plants receive more benefit form mycorrhizae is unfertilized soil
In the greenhouse studies performed by Nancy Johnson, Andropogon with mycorrhizae....
-grew to a larger size regardless of soil nutrient levels
In the first phase of Nancy Johnson's work on the effects of soil fertilization on mycorrhizae, unfertilized soil was shown to support higher densities of ____ mycorrhizal fungal species, while fertilized soil supported higher densities of one main species.
The mutualistic relationship between humans and honeyguides was studied by Isack and...
Honey badgers provide what service to honeyguide birds?
-they can open bees' nests to access honey
Compared to most unicellular algae, zooxanthellae produce fixed carbon:
-at a much higher rate than other nutrients
In the greenhouse studies performed by Nancy Johnson, Andropogon grown with mycorrhizae, nitrogen and ____ had the highest production of flowers
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