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Chinese Linguistics Quiz 3
Terms in this set (71)
the rules or whole system of a language or of languages
3 types: Universal, Cognitive, and Functional
principles (e.g., abstract rules or grammars) and parameters (e.g., word order).
Cognition and Language Grammar are inter-affected (e.g., different conceptualizations of space and time in different languages).
Grammar rules represent certain language functions (e.g., order, request, and emphasis).
nouns, verbs, adjectives, numerals, classifiers/measure words, and pronouns
=> Argument position：subject, predicate, object
adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliaries
=> Non-argument position
words used to identify any of a class of people, places, or things
Grammatical features of noun
1. They can be modified by numeral + classifier but cannot be modified by adverbs
2. They can be used after prepositions to form prepositional phrases.
Categories of noun
People and things：朋友(péngyou, friend)、精神(jīngshén, spirit)
Times and places：中国(zhōngguó, China)、春节(chūnjié, Spring festival)
Positions：上(shǎng, up/above)、下(xià, down/below)、左(zuǒ, left)、右(yòu, right)、前(qián, front)、后(hòu, back)
words used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence
Grammatical features of verb
1. They can be followed by aspectual auxiliaries (aspect markers like zhe, le, guo)
2. They can go with pattern "X bu/mei X"
3. They can be reduplicated in the patterns of AA or ABAB
Categories of Verb
transitive verbs：听(音乐) [tīng (yīnyuè), listen to (music)]
intransitive verbs：游泳(yóuyǒng, swim)
ditransitive verbs: 给(我)(钱) [gěi (wǒ)(qián), give (me)(money)]
psychological verbs：爱(ài, love)、恨(hèn, hate)
judgment verbs：是(shì, is/am/are)
auxiliary verbs：能(néng, can)、会(huì, would)、可以(kěyǐ, can)
words that describe the qualities or states of being of nouns
Grammatical features of adj
1. They can be modified by adv
2. They can be reduplicated in the patterns of AA or AABB
Categories of adj
Common adjectives：笔直(bǐzhí, straight)、雪白(xuěbái, snow white)
Non-predicate adjectives (that cannot be modified by adverbs, reduplicated, and cannot function as a predicate): 唯一的方法（wéiyī de fāngfǎ, the only method)
words that describe a numerical quantity
Grammatical features of Numerals
They can precede classifiers and nouns to form noun phrases
Categories of numerals
Cardinal numbers: 一(yī, one), 五(wǔ, five), 许多(xǔduō, many), 无数(wúshù, countless)
Ordinal numbers: 第一(dìyī, first), 第九(dìjiǔ, ninth)
words that accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" a noun depending on the type of its referent. It is also sometimes called a measure word or counter word.
Grammatical features of classifiers
1. They can follow numerals and precede nouns to form noun
2. They can be reduplicated in the pattern of AA
Categories of classifiers
Countable nouns - classifier: 一张桌子
Mass nouns - measure word: 一瓶酒 yī píng jiǔ one bottle of wine
Measure words for movement: 说一遍 shuō yī biàn speak one time
words that substitute for a noun or noun phrase.
Their references may be indefinite
Categories of pronouns
Personal pronouns: 你(nǐ, you), 我(wǒ, I/me), 他/她(tā，he, him / she, her)
Demonstrative pronouns: 这(zhè, this), 那(nà, that)
Interrogative pronouns: 谁(shéi, who), 什么(shénme, what), 哪里(nǎlǐ, where)
Reflexive pronouns: 你自己(nǐ zìjǐ, yourself), 我自己(wǒ zìjǐ, myself)
a class of words which modify any class of words other than nouns, such as verbs and adjectives.
Grammatical features of adverbs
1. They can modify verbs and adjectives.
2. They can function as adverbials.
Categories of adverbs
Degree：很(hěn, very), 非常(fēicháng, very), 特别(tèbié, especially)
Scope：都(dōu, both/all), 只(zhǐ, only), 仅仅(jǐnjǐn, only)
Time：正在(zhèngzài, right now), 立刻(lìkè, right away), 常常(chángcháng, usually)
Frequency：又(yòu, again), 再(zài, once more), 也(yě, also)
Negation：没(méi, not/no), 不(bù, not/no)
Intonation：的确(díquè, indeed), 也许(yěxǔ, perhaps), 大概(dàgài, probably)
Connective：却(què, but/however), 就(jiù, then)
words that indicate a relation between the noun or pronoun and a verb
Grammatical features of preposition
1. They indicate the relations between a verb and the noun/pronoun that they precede.
Categories of Prepositions
Time/Place：从(cóng, from), 到(dào, to), 在(zài, at), 往(wǎng, towards)
Tool/Manner：以(yǐ, by), 用(yòng, via/through), 通过(tōngguò, via/through)
Target/Scope：跟(gēn, with), 关于(guānyú, regarding)
Passive notion：被(bèi, by), 给(gěi, by)
Substitution：替(tì, for), 为(wéi, for)
words that link two or more words, phrases, clauses, or sentences within a larger unit, in such a way that a specific semantic relation is established between them.
Grammatical features of conjunction
1. They only serve for connecting purposes, and do not describe the units they connect.
Categories of conjunctions
Conjunctions for words/phrases: 和(hé, and), 同(tóng, as well as), 以及(yǐjí, and)
Conjunctions for clauses：
不但......而且(búdàn...érqiě, not only...but also), 要么......要么 (huòzhě...huòzhě, either...or), 因为......所以(yīnwèi...suǒyǐ, because...so)
add functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, so as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
Grammatical features of auxiliaries
They have to be attached to other units of speech to function.
Categories of auxiliaries
Aspect：着(-zhe, imperfective aspect marker), 了(-le, perfective aspect marker),过(-guo, experiential aspect marker)
Phrases structure：的(de, relative marker), 地(de, adverbial marker), 得(de, complement marker)
Intonation：吧(ba, sentence-final particle), 呢(ne, sentence-final particle), 啊(a, sentence-final particle)
The same word features different lexical categories
Chinese words are not generally marked for word class (e.g., noun, adjective, and verb).
Different part of a sentence
1. Subject Predicate
Subject and Predicate
The two main constituents of a clause, one being the subject and the other constituent being the predicate. The predicate says something about the subject.
In Chinese, a predicate can be a verb (1), verb phrase (2), adjective phrase (3), or noun (4).
An attributive is a word within a noun phrase that qualifies or modifies the head noun and expresses an attribute, as old in the old dog and expiration in expiration date.
An adverbial is a word (an adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial phrase) that modify or define the sentence or the verb.
A complement is a word, phrase, or clause that is necessary to complete the meaning of a predicate.
1. Declarative sentence: a statement that tells you about a fact, an opinion, or something specific.
2. Interrogative sentence: a sentence that asks a question.
3. Imperative sentence: a sentence that gives a command, asking someone to do something.
Four types of interrogative sentences
1. Wh-question: Wh-questions are formed with wh-words, like 谁(shéi, who), 什么(shénme, what), 什么时候(hénme shíhou, when), 哪里(nǎlǐ,where), and 怎么样(zěnmeyang, how).
2. Particle question: Particle questions are formed by adding the sentence-final particle (吗,ma) to a declarative sentence (equivalent to yes-or-no questions in English).
3. A-not-A question: A-not-A questions are formed by adding the negator (不, bù,not) and repeating the verb/predicate (equivalent to yes-or-no questions in English).
4. Disjunctive question: Disjunctive questions are formed by offering a couple of options that the respondent can choose from. The options are connected by 还是(háishì, or).
For wh-questions in Chinese, you do not have to move wh-words = The wh-words stay in their original positions.
The negative form of declarative sentences
three ways to negate declarative sentences:
(1) negator不 (bù,not/no)
(2) negator 没/没有(méi/méiyǒu, not/no)
(3) 别(bié, do not).
used to negate habitual/present events
the scope of the negation depends on the position of the negator. That is, 不 (bù,not/no) negates what follows.
negator 没/没有(méi/méiyǒu, not/no)
used to negate completed events
别(bié, do not)
used to negate unrealized events in demand or request (imperative sentences).
Imperative sentences usually do not have a sentence-initial noun/pronoun/noun phrase which assumes the listener to be the agent of the sentence or action.
Unique sentential constructions
1. Serial-verb construction
2. Pivotal sentences
3. Existential sentences
4. Topic-comment sentences
6. Bei-sentences/passive sentences
7. Notional passive sentence
Serial verb construction is a syntactic structure in which two or more verbs are combined to form a complex predicate to express a series of related actions within a single clause. The verbs share the same subject in the clause.
The predicate of a pivotal sentence is composed of two verbal phrases. The object of the first verb is simultaneously the subject of the second verb.
Usually, the first verb in a pivotal sentence should be a verb with a meaning of "making" or "ordering" somebody to do something, such as "请(qǐng, to invite)"or "让(rang, to ask)".
Existential sentences express the existence, appearance, or disappearance of someone or something in a certain place or location.
the topic of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment is what is being said about the topic. Topic plays a CRUCIAL role in Chinese.
In a topic-comment sentence, the comment is usually a clause consisting of a subject and predicate. Thus, a topic-comment sentence looks like it has two subjects. In some linguistics books, it is also referred to as double-subject construction.
Chinese is a topic-prominent language, but English is a subject-prominent language.
Chinese conveys information through the statement of a topic and its comment, whereas English builds sentences upon a subject and predicate
It is used to denote a sense of disposal or being dealt with
So-called canonical word order in Chinese (as English): S + V + O.The structure of Ba-construction: S + Ba - O + V + complement.
prepositioned object: secondary topic
Bei sentence/passive sentence
In passive sentences, agent is introduced by 被(bèi, by).
The structure of passive sentences: Patient (object) + Bei - Agent (subject) + V + complement
Complement is syntactically and semantically required in passive sentences.
In Chinese, passive sentences are usually used to express unpleasant/unfavorite situations.
In most cases, passive sentences express negative/unpleasant meanings.However, under the influence of English, Chinese passive sentences nowadays begin to express neutral meanings.
Agent can be omitted in passive sentences.
Notional passive sentence
passive sentences that are not marked by 被(bèi, by) and omit the agent following 被(bèi, by).
The structure of passive sentences: Patient (object) + Bei - Agent (subject) + V + complement
The structure of notional passive sentences:Patient (object) + V + complement
The noun in subject position is the patient (object) of the verb.
There are a lot of notional passive sentences in Chinese (probably due to its topic-prominent feature).
Why does Chinese have these unique sentence construction? How do these unique constructions embody the features of Chinese language?
1. Chinese has flexible word order (Pivotal sentence, serial-verb construction, existential sentence)
2. Words are combined according to semantic relations rather than their syntactic roles (semantically more important)
3. Topic-prominent feature: sentences revolve around the topic and the function of sentences is to provide a comment on the topic (existential sentences, Ba construction, notional passive sentences)
Form: Subject + Ba-object + Verb + Complement
1. Prepositioned object (before verb): draw listeners' attention to the object that is dealt with; this is why it is prepositioned.
2. Obligatory complement: to indicate the process or result of the movement, influence, and transformation.
1.To express the sense of disposal (influence, impact, movement, and transformation/transfer)
2.To emphasis the influence that the action/event exerts on the object (secondary topic)
=> You actively do something to an object = active voice
1. Topic chain
2. Pro-drop language
3. Many elements/parts of a clause can be omitted in Chinese if they can be inferred from the context. However, it may not be grammatical to do so in English.
4. Parallel construction
multiple comments share the same topic, which occurs in the sentence initial position in the first clause.
This topic-prominent feature not only applies to isolated sentences (topic-comment sentence), but also discourse (topic-chain) in Chinese
Pronoun-dropping is that pronouns or noun phrases in subject position may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable.
Chinese is a pro-drop language
English is a non-pro-drop language.
Parallel construction vs Subordinated construction
Chinese is a
Chinese VS English discourse
1. Topic-prominent vs Subject Prominent
2. Pro-drop language vs Non-pro-drop language
3. Null elements (omission - elements that can't be seen on the surface of the language structure) vs Non-ellipsis
4. Less explicit conjunctions/cohesive devices vs More explicit conjunctions/cohesive devices
5. Paratactic construction (coordination) vs Hypotactic constructions (subordination)
Discourse oriented grammar
1. Sentence final partical (le)
2. Adverb (jiu)
3. Adverb 才Cai
1: perfective aspect marker for completed actions/events
2. indicating a currently relevant state with respect to some particular situation: (1) change of state (2) correct wrong assumption (3) progress so far (4) what happens next (5) closing a statement (6) more than one use of le.
1. Signaling two events happening in close succession
2. Connecting clauses to express sufficiency in terms of conditions
3. Delimiting the scope or strengthening the tone
4. Suggesting earliness or quickness
5. Presupposing the amount is much more than it is thought
1. Suggesting lateness or slowness
2. Presupposing the amount is much less than it is thought
1.Chinese is a very discourse-oriented/contextualized language.
2.If you wonder why some words or constructions are used or not used in a sentence, you can always find "the answer" in the context/discourse.
Sentence Final Particles
Multifunctional words (ye, you, hai)
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