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3. Most important bovine genetic diseases, breeding methods in cattle production: Purebred breeding, crossbreeding
Terms in this set (19)
Bovine Lymphocyte Adhesion Deficiency is an immunodeficiency
What is BLAD and what does it stand for?
Severe ulcers on oral mucous membranes, loss of teeth, chronic pneumonia, chronic diarrhea and death at early age
What happen to cattle affected by BLAD?
A blood clotting disorder where the body fail to produce sufficient thrombin in the intrinsic pathway of coagulation cascade, which results in bleeding
What is haemophilia B?
Deficiency of Uridine Monophosphate Synthase, lysosomal storage disease
What does DUMPS stand for and what is it?
It leads to embryonic death in early stage of pregnancy
What is the effect of DUMPS?
Double muscling, found in Belgian blue cattle
What is muscular hypertrophy and in which species is this a breed trait?
Spinal Muscular Atrophy, progressively destroys motor neurons in brain stem and spinal cord which leads to muscle weakness and atrophy
What is SMA?
It is a complex vertebral malformation, disorders of chondro-osseous tissue, found in Dexter cattle
What is chondrodysplasia and in which species is it found?
Harem, stud or hand. Beef cattle. Sex ratio = 40-50
What is a natural breeding system, who is it intended for and what is the sex ratio?
Artificial insemination. Dairy cattle. Sex ratio = 150-200 in one single ejaculation (deep frozen seamen)
What is AI, who is it intended for, and what is the sex ratio?
Increase allelic frequencies of favorable characteristics (inbreeding) and preservation of allelic frequencies as high as possible (gene preservation)
What is the goal of purebreeding?
- Improvement of genetic level of a breed by additive gene effects of other breeds
- New breed establishment
What is the goal of cross breeding?
Terminal cross, two breed cross , back cross, three breed cross and composite (synthetic) breed
Name common crossbreeding systems
Two or more breeds are crossed in an organized sequential system with the final crossing going to slaughter (complexity increases, as more breeds are used)
What is a terminal cross?
Requires a female herd of a particular breed. One part is used to breed replacement, purebred females, while the rest are used to produce crossbred progeny, which is sold for slaughter
What is a two breed cross?
One of the two parent breeds are mated back to the F1
Lends itself to consistent product.
What is a back cross?
Some back cross calves can look similar to purebreds (especially with Herefords)
Why is identification important in back crossing?
It requires min. 3 breeding paddocks.
One purebred herd is used to breed purebreed replacements
One herd produces F1 cows and F1 cows breed terminal slaughter animal
(A+B → AB + C → ABC)
What is a three breed cross?
A synthetic breed results from crossing two or more existing breeds. Example of synthetic breeds are Santa Gertrudis, Braford, Charbray
What is a synthetic breed? Name examples!
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