Psychology: Final Exam

Charles Darwin's interest in ___ influenced the field of evolutionary psychology
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According to your textbook, magnet therapy, on which American spend $500 million each year, is considered a type of:PseudoscienceWhich best defines a tentative theory?A tentative explanation for a phenomenonBehaviorism differs from psychoanalysis MOST notably in the behaviorists' emphasis on:that which is observableIn contrast to behaviorism's focus on behavior as being shaped by external causes, humanistic psychology regarded ___ as the important influences on human behaviorself-determination and free willThe branch of psychology that studies the relationship between behavior and bodily processes and systems is known as:biological psychologyThe main communication link connecting the two cerebral hemispheres, which is made up of a thick bundle of neurons, is called?Corpus callosumThe brain structure responsible for regulating behavior related to survival, such as hunger and thirst, is called the ___ and is part of the ___ systemhypothalamus; limbicThe part of the brain that is essential to regulating such behaviors as eating, drinking, sexual activity, fear, and aggression is thehypothalamusThe brain's ability to change its physical structure in response to learning, practice, or environmental influences is known asstructural plasticityThe notion that specific psychological or cognitive functions are processed primarily on one side of the brain is known aslateralization of functionSensation can BEST be described as the:detection and sensory experience of stimuliAnika sits down at the dinner table, she notices that the chair is somewhat uncomfortable. After a few minutes however, she no longer notices the discomfort. This phenomenon is called?Sensory adaptationThe idea that perception can occur without sensation is calledparapsychologyThe extrasensory perception ESP that allows a person to see something that hasn't happened is called?precognitionThe eardrum is a tightly stretched membrane at the end of the ear canal thatvibrates when hit by soundWhat is true about pheromones among humans and nonhuman animals?Humans use pheromones in different ways than nonhumansPheromones can make some people irresistible to members of the preferred sex?FalseAs Jessica moves away from the camera, her image on the screen grows smaller and smaller, yet viewers do not perceive Jessica as the incredible shrinking woman. What principle did your awesome professor teach you that explains this perception of Jessica's sizesize consistencyTo identify an object, a person is most likely to rely on the object'sshapeThe misperception of the true characteristics of an object is called anperceptual illusionThe phenomenon that involves the misperception of the length of two identical lines, one with arrows pointing outward and one with arrows pointing inward is known asthe Muller-Lyer illusionPerceiving the same object i.e., the moon, being two different sizes as a cause of the surroundings of the object is calledthe Moon IllusionThere is a period of sleep during which the brain is very active, voluntary muscle activity becomes suppressed, physiological arousal is considerable, and the eyes move back and forth under the eyelids. This is calledREM sleepAmanda, who has a very warm, loving relationship with her husband, dreamt that she had an intense, emotional argument with him in which she shouted and screamed and called him names. Amanda's psychologist who is a Freudian suggested that Amanda must have some deeply repressed anger and frustration toward her father that was expressed symbolically in the dream about her husband. Amanda's account of the dream represents the ___ and her therapist's account represents the ___manifest; manifest contentRuminations about real-life during REM sleep are often referred to assleep thinkingThe type of unpleasant, even frightening, dreams that typically occur during REM sleep and often cause the person to wake up are callednightmaresAccording to ___, dreaming is the subjective awareness of the brains internally generated signals during sleepFreud's psychoanalytic theoryThe sleep disorder in which a person is regularly unable to fall asleep, stay asleep, or feel adequately rested by sleep is calledinsomniaExperiencing short episodes of sleep lasting only a few seconds while still awake is known asmicrosleepSleep disorders characterized by physical arousal or activation during sleep or sleep transitions, including sleepwalking, night terrors, sleep-related eating disorders, sexsomnia, and REM sleep behavior disorder are calledparasomniasOne essential feature in hypnosis is thata cooperative social interaction must existBrain imaging technology has allowed neuroscientists to document the brain during mediationTrueTechniques for focusing attention, which are found in most cultures and many religions are calledmeditationThe family of psychoactive medications from which the drugs, oxycontin, percodan, Demerol, come from are calledopioids and narcoticsWhen using stimulus control therapy, which activities are allowed in the bedroom?Sex and sleepWhich statement can be made about designer club drugs such as ecstasy?they are synthesized in a lab rather than delivered from the naturally occurring compoundsTwo primary types of conditioning discussed in the textbook are ___ and ___operant; classicalThree basic types of learning are classical conditioning, operant conditioning andobservational learningMr. Pedro frequently forgot the password to his computer. He posted a sticky note on the screen with a clue to help him remember. Eventually, he remembered the password by simply thinking of the clue rather than trying to recall the password. This is an example of ___ behaviorlearned___ won a Nobel prize for his work on digestion. During his study he coincidently discovered the learned principal known as ___ conditioningPavlov; classicalShea developed a fear of attics after she was accidentally locked in her attic. Shea's present fear of the attic a conditioned ___emotional responseJohn Watson founded which psychological theory approach?behaviorismLittle Albert revealed which of the following about classical conditioningit can be used to establish emotional responseThe ___ perspective of learning posits that both mental processes and external events are involved in the learning of new behaviorcognitiveWhen Mr. Stanley was young; he ate cinnamon toast crunch and became very ill. He developed a dislike and avoided the cereal. This is a classical conditioned response known as:taste aversionIf an action is negatively reinforced, it is ___ to be repeated. If an action is positively reinforced, it is ___ to be repeatedmore likely; more likelyFood, water, and other biological necessities are considered:primary reinforcersAccording to the ___ model developed by B.F. Skinner behavior is shaped and maintained by its environmental consequencesoperant conditioning; B.F. SkinnerBehavior modification involves applying the principles of ___ to bring about changes in behavioroperant conditioningAn animals tendency to revert to instinctive behaviors that can interfere with the performance of an operantly conditioned response is called:instinctive driftAll learning styles theories assert that people learn in different ways and that learning is:optimized when learners are instructed in the preferred learning stylesWhich phrase is the definition of observational learning?Learning that occurs through observing the action of othersWhat statement best defines latent learning:learning may occur in the absence of reinforcement, but it is not behaviorally demonstrated until a reinforcer becomes availableWhat stage of memory has approximately 20 seconds of duration?Short-term memoryThe process of retaining info in memory so it can be used at a later time is called:storageWhile Stack was at a party with friends he notices someone across the room who looks familiar. As he attempts to recall the person's name he is utilizing his ___ memorylong-termWhat stage of memory has a duration of up to 3 seconds?Sensory memoryOne way info is organized into related groups in long-term memory is called:clusteringThe process called ___ involves transforming info into a form that can be entered into and retained by the memory systemencodingThe reason cadets may perceive an essay test to be more difficult than a multiple-choice test is because an essay test relies on the ability to ___ without retrieval cues, while multiple-choice test measures ___recall; recognitionWhen you speak to your spectacular professor about your concern about your upcoming quiz he tells you to "suck it up" and try to sit in the same seat that you took the notes in. this is an example of ___ effectcontextWhich memories are perceived as more vivid and accurate than ordinary memories?Flashbulb memoriesThe hypothesis that normal metabolic processes that occur over time in the brain gradually erode memory traces is also known as:decay theoryYou know you have a doctor's appt next week so you keep reminding yourself not to forget. This type of remembering to do something in the future is also called ___ memoryprospectiveOne of Hermann Ebbinghaus' greatest contributions to psychology was his discovery of:the forgetting curveThe inability to recall specific info because you're not paying attention is called a ___ failureencodingWhalen had a sh** day because his girlfriend dumped him, he got an ugly haircut and his professor gave him a bad grade for no reason. He decides to read a magazine in a deliberate and conscious attempt to forget about his day before he falls asleep. This is called?SuppressionWhich type of memory involves a brief but intense feeling of familiarity in a new situation.Deja vuStudies show that false memories can be created for events that never happenTrueThe memory phenomenon known as ___ involves a person's increasing confidence that an event occurred if the event was vividly imaginedimagination inflationLoss of memory caused by the inability to store new memories is called:anterograde amnesiaAfter a car accident Chaisang could not remember anything. He couldn't even remember the car accident itself. He is most likely suffering from?Retrograde amnesiaHenry Molaison (patient H.M.) had his hippocampus removed to control his seizures and as a result, he lost his ability to:form new memoriesThe process of repeatedly going over info using multiple strategies i.e. literature and images until it makes an impression in your brain is called:engraving rehearsalWhich term is used to describe a mental representation of an object or event that is not physically present?Mental imageThe "best" or most typical, instead of a particular concept is called a?PrototypeWhich general term refers to the mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining and using knowledge?CognitionWhen shopping Ms. Bula is somewhat frugal & always buys whichever brand of facial tissue is on sale, even if it's not the highest quality. This decision is based on the __________ model of decision makingSingle-featureThe tendency for Mr. Pham to persist in unwarranted, pseudoscientific beliefs is partly due to his tendency to search for information that might disprove them. This is called?Confirmation biasMs. Rabaca just purchased a new iPad. Instead of reading through the manual first, she spent hours trying different approaches to program it. What approach to problem-solving does this represent?Trial and errorThe measure of intelligence known as _________ expresses an individual's mental ability in terms of the average abilities of a certain age groupMental ageGiven the way IQ scores are calculated on the Stanford-Binet, if a test taker's mental age is identical to his or her chronological age, then the IQ score is likely to be?100When Looking at the normal curve of an IQ, what percentage of individuals fall within the "normal" IQ range?68%When Ms. Welsh took the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WAIS) test, one aspect of her general cognitive ability that is NOT likely to have been measured is her?CreativityMr. Solomon is extremely adept at solving problems; that is, he is very good at picking problem-solving strategies and applying them to problems. This ability is a form of _________Analytical intelligenceWhat has research that uses twins and IQ scores to study the impact of environmental and genetics in development found?Both environment and genes play a role in IQ scoresThe form of intelligence that involves the ability to deal with novel situations by drawing on existing skills and knowledge is called _________ intelligenceCreativeWhat term is used to describe an IQ test that is biased against individuals that score higher or lower according to where they are from?Social discriminationWhat term refers to the biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that together activate and direct behavior?MotivationAlthough not discounting the role of biological and external motivators, the _________ theory of motivation suggests that psychological and cognitive factors are the essential elements in motivationhumanisticAccording to _________ theories, people are motivated to engage in certain behaviors because of evolutionary programminginstinctAfter a long day, Mr. Smith decides to lay down for a while. The amount of energy expended by your body at rest is called your:basal metabolic rateLopouchanski has a BMI of 30 or greater; he is considered:obeseIf Josepher is not sexually attracted to either sex regardless of their sexual behavior, he is considered to beasexualHuman sexual response could be described as a cycle with four stages: excitement, ____________, orgasm, and resolutionplateau_____________ developed a model of human motivation that proposed, people are motivated to satisfy their sexual physiological needs prior to other psychological needs.MaslowFew's desire to be associated with like-minded people in social groups is his need for ____________affiliationMost researchers conclude that the basic emotions are:sadness, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise and angerResearch indicates that children who are born blind still express emotions such as joy, anger, and pleasure using the same facial expressions as other childrenTrueHow many facial expressions is the human face capable of expressing?7,000The ability to control your own emotions and respond to the emotions of others is called?emotional intelligenceThe study of mechanisms that control gene expression and its effects on behavior and health is known as:epigeneticsBabcock notices that two of her siblings have blonde hair, compared to her own red hair. In this case, Babcock is observing:PhenotypesThe final and longest period of prenatal development is called the ________ periodfetalWhen Fonteneau neglects his children and is inconsistent and insensitive to their needs as infants, his kids are most likely to form a _________ with himinsecure attachmentCognitive development involves continuous change over the lifespanTrueMs. Gilstrap has come to expect that her needs will be met because her parents are consistently warm and sensitive to her. Ms. Gilstrap is most likely developing a _________ attachmentsecureWhich stage of cognitive development is characterized by the ability to think about abstract principles and hypothetical situations?formal operationalWhat age range is classified as emerging adulthood?late teens to mid to late twentiesAt what age are children likely to be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?2-4 yearsWhen Caleb was 17 he went through a period of conflict over issues relating to his identity, but now he feels comfortable with the choices he has made. Caleb has achieved:an integrated identityThe transitional stage between late childhood and the beginning of adulthood, when sexual maturity is reached, is known as which stage?adolescenceA sense of self, including the values, beliefs, and ideals that guide his or her behavior, describes persons __________IdentityWhalen is 49 and has just recently stopped menstruating. He has just experienced:menopause____________ posits that greater life satisfaction is found among those who maintain the same level of activity with age as when they were youngerThe activity theory of agingA decline in general intellectual abilities that occur between the ages of 60 and 70 often occur because older people lack practice and or experience with everyday tasks used in current mental abilities testsTrueThe second stage of Kübler Ross's stage theory of dying is known as:angerThe parenting style in which parents set clear standards for their children's behavior but are also responsive to their children's needs and wishes is called theauthoritative styleThe psychological study of how people think, feel, and behave in social situations is called __________ psychologysocialYour sense of who you are in relation to other people is called your:sense of self__________ is the mental process of classifying people into groups on the basis of their shared characteristicssocial categorizationAs Ms. Welsh walks into the college library, she sees a friend and whispers "hi" as they pass each other. Her whispering is likely in concordance with the expectations for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation. Such expectations are an example of:social normsCecil, a student from the Citadel, often wonders why people are surprised when they find out that he also is a ballerina instructor on the weekends. The most obvious explanation is that people form a cognitive schema for different types of people and occupations. The use of these types of assumptions is part of:implicit personality theoryPhysical attractiveness is positively correlated with intelligenceTrueWhich of the following is not true about self-serving bias?it is an inclination to react modestly in the face of failureA person who tends to overestimate his or her own ability to predict the outcome of an event would be described as:having hindsight biasThe learned tendency to evaluate an object, person, or issue in a particular way, which could be either positive, negative, or ambivalent is called:attitudeAccording to social psychologist, the three components of an attitude are:cognitive, affective, and behavioralThe well-known psychologist who conducted famous experiments on the concept of cognitive dissonance was:Phillip Zimbardo________ is a negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social groupprejudiceStereotyping refers to the concept of clustering characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social groupTrueWhen prejudice is displayed behaviorally, it is calleddiscriminationThe concept of conformity is related to the concept of __________, which is the psychological study of how behavior is shaped by social environment and other peoplesocial influenceThe Stanford Prison study revealed that the effects of implied social norms can be just as powerful as those that are explicit.TrueIn Milgram's obedience experiment, he gave the teachers a real sample shock to prove that the voltage they would be administering was in fact deadly at a certain pointTrueA phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it LESS likely that any individual will help someone in distress is called:the bystander effectThe deliberate attempt to influence the attitudes or behavior of another person in a situation in which the person has some freedom of choice is called:persuasion_________ refers to helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefitalturismTestosterone has been related to good negotiation and leadership skills as well as to aggressive behaviorTrueShea experienced a great deal of anxiety when she had three exams on the same day. In this situation, the exams are _______ and her response is ________the stressors; stressEvents or situations that are negative, severe, and far beyond our normal expectations for everyday life or life events are called:traumatic eventsContinuous or ongoing stress is referred to as:chronic stressAccording to the _________, health and illness are determined by the complex interactions of biological, psychological, and social factors.biopsychosocial modelLuke's car was rear-ended while he was on her way to pick up his daughter from school. After the initial shock of the accident, he was able to examine the damage to his car and talk to the other driver. According to the general adaptation syndrome, in what stage was Luke when he spoke to the driver?resistanceWhen Maxwell was being barked at by a dog his testicles raised and a small amount of urine discharged from his urethra. Because it was such a frightening experience he is likely to have experienced a rapidly occurring chain of internal physical reactions called:the fight or flight responseThe use a placebo in a research study involves:an inactive substanceDo studies on the benefit of social support and healing indicate an increase of lifespan?TrueThe _________ explanatory style accounts for negative events or situations with external, unstable and specific explanationsoptimisticThe component of Type A personality that is the strongest predictor of cardiac disease is:hostilityBetween men, women, children, and teenagers, what population is more likely to suffer from the stress contagion effect?womenThe strategy used in emotion-focused coping that involves refusing to acknowledge that a problem existed is called:denialVanherwinens is an emergency department nurse. Whenever he has a particularly hectic and stressful shift, he and some other nurses find themselves making fun of the patients and the doctors. Vanerwinens and his colleagues are using an emotion-focused coping strategy called:distancingThe ways in which we try to change circumstances, or our interpretation of circumstances, to make them more favorable and less threatening, is referred to as a strategy called:copingWhich coping tactic is most likely to lead to depression and anxiety?escape and avoidanceNeither exercise nor adequate amounts of sleep promote resistance to health problems and buffer stress.FalseIt is a good idea to activate the immune system by using stimulants such as ecstasy and molly to minimize stress.FalseAccording to the National Survey Replication (NCS-R) study, around _________ percent of U.S. adults have experienced symptoms of a psychological disorder at some point in their lives45The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, also known as the DSM-5, is used to describe the __________ for different psychological disorderssymptoms and diagnostic guidelinesHomosexuality was classified in the DSM-5 in earlier editions but has since been removedtrueWhen Greene exits the subway he is filled with escalating feelings. He feels as if he can't breathe, that something bad is about to happen and that he might die. What is Greene most likely experiencing?panic attackEver since Kober got home from a paintball tournament with his friends, which was very traumatic for him, he is unable to sleep, checks his locks repeatedly at night, and has explosive outbursts. Kober is likely suffering from:post-traumatic stress disorderTwo brain areas implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder are the _________ which is involved in planning and thinking ahead, and the _________, which is involved in the regulation of movementsfrontal lobes; caudate nucleus Pseudoscience; copperMs. Adcock suffered from a panic attack while shopping at the grocery store. Now she is terribly afraid to have another panic attack in public. She will only have food ordered in and will not leave her apartment. Ms. Adcock is most likely suffering from:agoraphobiaStanly suffers from intense worry, tension, and physical arousal. It is most likely that he is suffering from:generalized anxiety disorderMaximus spends hours getting ready because when he gets dressed he needs to put on and take off his drawers 12 times. The pattern has caused him to be late to class multiple times and causes him distress. Maximus is most likely suffering from:obsessive-compulsive disorderThe rapid-fire speech and escalating emotions associated with a manic episode are symptoms of a disorder known as:bipolar disorderThe distinct difference between bipolar disorder and major depression is the presence of _______ in bipolar disordermaniaThe eating disorder characterized by binges of overeating followed by self-induced purging is called:bulimia nervosa________ is characterized by excessive weight loss, irrational fear of gaining weight, and distorted body self-perceptionanorexia nervosaMen rather than women are more commonly diagnosed with antisocial personality disordertrueMathews partner Jefe often does not treat him well and abuses him. When anyone asks him about it he defends Jefe and says he does not want to be alone. Excessive clinging behaviors and fear of separation might indicate he suffers from ___________ personality disorderdependentThe grandiose sense of self-importance associated with ________ personality disorder often involves an excessive need for admirationnarcissisticA person with dissociative identity disorder often exhibits two or more distinct identitiesTrueThe severely distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought processes typically associated with _________ often signify a strong loss of being in touch with reality by the patientschizophreniaTeems was just diagnosed with schizophrenia at the age of 22 and has an identical brother, Holland who does not suffer from the disorder at this point. Holland has a ____ percent chance of developing schizophrenia50There is a widely held belief that schizophrenia is related to, and might be caused by excessive activity of the neurotransmitter chemical ____________ in the braindopamine