Terms in this set (39)

He came after Stalin and didn't like Stalinism. He was willing to negotiate with the US. He wanted US out of Berlin. He was approachable and in 1959 nuclear disarament talks were in the air. After Stalin died in 1953, a scramble for leadership ensued in the Soviet Union and was resolved by bringing Nikita Khrushchev to power. In 1956, Nikita Khrushchev made a daring secret speech to a closed session of the Twentieth Congress of the Communists Party of the Soviet Union; he criticized Stalin's policies, including his elimination of many innocent people during the 1930's. From then until his removal in 1964, Nikita Khrushchev used criticism of Stalin and Stalinist policies to weaken the power of his political rivals within the party hierarchy. While motivated largely by political concerns, Nikita Khrushchev de-Stalinization campaign also led to less censorship. By the late 1950's the Communist Party under Nikita Khrushchev's leadership had allowed millions of innocent people to be freed from the camps. Nikita Khrushchev also wanted to improve living standards, including increasing agricultural output. To do so, he limited military spending more than some of his political rivals though appropriate. Meanwhile, leadership in the US went from Truman to Eisenhower. Nikita Khrushchev and Eisenhower remained suspicious of each other, they were both more willing than their predecessors to negotiate under appropriate circumstances. Nikita Khrushchev and Eisenhower met at a summit conference in Geneva in 1955 and a momentum was established to lead other meetings. In 1955, the US agreed to end the occupation of Austria, and the Soviet Union recognized the West German government. Selected groups of Americans and Soviet citizens began visiting each other's nations. At the same time, the US media began to tone down their strident anti-communist presentations. During the missile age, Nikita Khrushchev warned western powers that the multi-force occupation of Berlin must end in 6 months or the Soviet Union would turn over the responsibility for Berlin and the supply corridors to East Germany. Despite the missile race, Nikita Khrushchev kept postponing the deadline. He visited the US in 1959 and nuclear disarmament talks were once again in the air. The US, the USSR, and GB stopped testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere.
North attacked first. South counterattacked and drove North to China border. Then China volunteers drove it back to the 38th parallel and an armistice was signed. On June 25, 1950, with the approval of the Soviet Union and China, North Korea launched a surprise attack on South Korea. President Truman was mindful of the lessen of appeasement that unchecked appeasement just lead to more of the same. So he decided to commit US troops for the defense of South Korea against North Korean aggression. Truman also termed Korea "the Greece of the far east" where the US must contain Communist expansion. South Korea supplied 1/2 ground forces and other countries contributed the rest. United Nations Commander in Chief General Douglas MacArthur turned the tide of the Korean War in a brilliant maneuver by landing at Inchon in the rear of the North Korean forces. He then drive the North Koreans out of South Korea and through North Korea toward the Chinese border. The North Koreans were losing the war and China became anxious as the United Nations soldiers approached the Chinese border. Stalin urged China to save North Korea because it was also in Chinas best interest to have Communist North Korea as a buffer. In October 1950, 1 million Chinese "volunteers" crossed into Korea and by December were driving back the United Nation forces back into South Korea. The front stabilized in 1951 near the 38th parallel and armistice, truce for a short time, talks were in the air because a prolonged war would deepen China's dependence on Soviet aid. The armistice was finally signed 1953 after Stalin's death in 1953 and after the election of Eisenhower. Estimated 4 million mostly Korean Civilians died. The United States suffered 142,000 casualties. South Korean dead: 1.3 million. North & Chinese dead: 2 million. Many Americans were frustrated with the dismissal of MacArthur and that they did not clearly win the Korean War. The US left troops in South Korea. Rhee was taken over by student demonstrations but they couldn't find a unified leader, the military seized power in South Korea. In North Korea, Kim Il Sung concentrated himself supreme power over the Korean workers party. By the late 1960's South Korea forged ahead of North Korea.
Lessening tensions after just avoiding nuclear war. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Non-Proliferation Treaty, SALT, Helsinki agreements. It ended when Soviet Troops appeared in Afghanistan in 1979. After the Cuban Missile Crisis, many world leaders became interested in lessening tensions and reducing the chances of nuclear war. In 1963, the major atomic powers joined over 100 nations in signing the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty which prohibited testing in outer space, the atmosphere, and under water. They also signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty which prohibited countries from developing atomic weapons. China and France refused. From the Nuclear Test Ban of 1963 through most of the 1970's, superpower relations were generally characterized by a spirit of détente. Both the US and the USSR attempted to find points of agreement and succeeded in expanding trade and cultural contacts and agreeing on a strategic arms limitation treaty. In the 1970's, the US and China ended a long period of hostility and established diplomatic, cultural, and economic relations with each other. Most of the international community, which displayed an increasing tendency toward multipolarity, joined in signing a number of treaties designed to limit the testing and proliferation of nuclear weapons. Meanwhile, however, the uninterrupted postwar arms race produced even more destructive weapons. From time to time, international events such as the war in Indochina and the Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, stalled progress toward improved relations. The appearance of Soviet troops in Afghanistan in December 1979 because the allies were scared of Soviets expanding communism and events of the early 1980s signaled the spirit of détente had faded and that the arms race was accelerating.
He created the doctrine saying he could intervene anytime he wanted when communism is threatened. The Soviet Union continued to keep military spending as a top priority. The government also improved the living standards. Nikita Khrushchev was ousted from power because of a poor harvest in 1963, bad economy, foreign policy failures, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and his attempts to get rid of Stalinism and reform Communist system. Leonid Brezhnev seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became secretary of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. He was not a dictator but the most prominent of a small group of political leaders in a one-party state. In 1968, in support of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, he enunciated the "Brezhnev doctrine," asserting that the USSR could intervene in the domestic affairs of any Soviet bloc nation if Communist rule were threatened. While maintaining a tight rein in Eastern Europe, he favored closer relations with the Western powers, and he helped (1972-74) bring about a détente with the United States. In 1977 he assumed the presidency of the USSR, thereby becoming head of state and head of the party. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, cold war tensions returned with an acceleration in the arms race, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the continued intransigence toward political and economic reform within the Soviet bloc, such as the imposition of martial law in Poland. Brezhnev's regime was criticized for its corruption and failed economic policies. During the Brezhnev era, the Soviet Union in some areas continued to keep military spending as a top priority. The government also improved the living standards. The government continued to develop the nations rich resources of petroleum, gas , and minerals. However, agriculture fell they had a lot of poor harvests.
the formation of the independent trade union was in response to the actions of the Communist government in raising prices for basic goods. The fragile economic and political status of Eastern Europe became especially evident in the early 1980s. In 1980 the Polish government tried to increase meat prices but people were upset. The government was forced to recognize solidarity, a powerful new independent labor union. The government agreed to salary increases and made concessions regarding political prisoners, censorship, additional religious access to the mass media, and a number of other worker demands. Stanislaw Kania was in charge and for the next year, liberalization proceeded at a rapid pace. The Catholic Church headed by the Polish Pope John Paul II, was sympathetic to the union and supported liberalization. As the Polish people gained more freedom, Soviet leaders became increasingly alarmed. In order to please Soviet leaders, in October 1981, replaced Kania with Jaruzelski. Without warning Jaruzelski arrested solidarity leaders and the union called them illegal. Then Jaruzelski raised the food prices. Alarmed by Poland's economic position and the recent crackdown on Solidarity, Western governments became worried about the raising debt of Eastern European nations. Solidarity was: the formation of the independent trade union was in response to the actions of the Communist government in raising prices for basic goods. Political movement in Poland during 1980 in which the Polish government allowed Polish workers to be represented by an independent trade union against the workers' state. This was a paradoxical situation and was crushed by the Soviet Union on December 13, 1981 after 469 days of Solidarity. This was the first of many Eastern European rebellions against the Soviet Union's Communist Policies.
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