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Exam psych 1
Terms in this set (50)
The main idea of _____ Psychosocial theory of development is that people face a total of ____crisis across a lifetime
Which of the following is NOT one of the principles of cultural developmental model of human development?
historically, since the mid 1800's, psychologists have consistently conducted research on a wide variety of cultures to understand human development
If in a cross sectional study a researcher finds that older adults have lower intelligence than younger adults, this could be an age effect, or a(n) __________.
A disadvantage of _________________ is that the researcher must spend extensive time among the people being studied, which can be a great sacrifice on the part of the researcher.
African-American, Asian-American, and Latino families in the U.S. tend to be more _________________ than White families (on average).
The more adults talk to an infant, the higher the child's vocabulary by age three. This is an example of:
a positive correlation
Although intriguing and a newer research method, biological measurements such as ___________________ can yield data that is difficult to interpret.
Dr. Brown conducted research in Chicago, Illinois. She then tried to replicate it in Kenya, Africa, but the participants didn't really seem to understand what she was asking for in her interviews. This is an example of the challenge of obtaining:
Mesosystem, exosystem, and microsystem are examples of the levels that play a part in human development, according to _________________ of Urie Bronfenbrenner.
the ecological theory
An advantage of longitudinal research is that it:
follows the same people over time, allowing one to see age effects
Single gene pairs play a crucial role in development. However, it is more common that developmental outcomes occur because of the interaction of multiple genes. This is known as ___________.
A person's __________ is/are his or her genetic inheritance, whereas a person's ___________ is/are his or her expressed characteristics.
What is occurring when the phenotype is influenced primarily but not exclusively by the dominant gene?
Nancy is concerned she is gaining too much weight during her pregnancy. Recent scientific studies suggests Nancy should gain between __________ pounds in order to maintain a healthy pregnancy.
The guidelines for prenatal care focus mostly on three key areas: __________.
diet, exercise, and avoidance of teratogens
Which statement is true regarding the incidence of serious prenatal disorders?
The addition of folic acid appears to sharply reduce the incidence of anencephaly and spina bifida.
Advancements in fertility treatments have resulted in an increase in the number of __________ twins.
Sandra Scarr and Kathleen McCartney proposed the theory of genotype → environment effects. Which subtype occurs when a person's inherited characteristics bring about responses from others in their environment?
evocative genotype → environment effects
Nature is to __________ as nurture is to __________.
A(n) __________ is a behavior, environment, or bodily condition that can having a damaging effect on prenatal development.
Monozygotic (MZ) twins have __________ genes in common.
If you were to design a research study that examines sociability in relation to concordance rate, which of the following would be the best groups to use for comparison?
identical twins and fraternal twins
If temperament were genetically based, which of the following would have the greatest degree of similarity?
monozygotic (MZ) twins
Sandra Scarr and Kathleen McCartney proposed the theory of genotype → environment effects. Which subtype occurs when people seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristics?
active genotype → environment effects
__________ studies allow researchers to study whether certain behaviors or traits are more closely related to genetics or environment
Genes establish a potential of expression, and environment determines where a person's phenotype will fall. This boundary of genetic influence is referred to as __________.
the reaction range
What are possible side effects for the baby of a woman who gains less than 20 pounds during her pregnancy?
being born preterm with a low birth weight
What is the name of the statistic that ranges from 0 to 1.00 and is used to estimate the degree to which genes are responsible for differences among people from a specific population?
When concordance rates are higher among monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins, this indicates which of the following?
There is partially a genetic basis.
__________ is an example of an aerobic exercise that is safe to do while pregnant.
Your next-door neighbors are going crazy. They brought their newborn home from the hospital only to find that he cries for long periods of time, and they do not know what to do about it. What would you tell them?
Many American infants cry frequently for no apparent cause.
Based on assessment of 27 items, the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale categorizes infants into one of three categories: __________.
worrisome, normal, or superior
Your sister and brother-in-law just had a baby. They were a bit confused because they were told that their baby had a score of 7 and then a 10. At first they were joking that that meant that their baby girl was very beautiful. What would you tell them?
Those were scores for the Apgar scale, which ranges from 1 to 10.
Which of the following best describes the visual abilities of a neonatal infant?
Their visual acuity is worse than the average adult.
Why is a neonate rated on the Apgar scoring system at 1 minute and again at 5 minutes after birth?
A neonate's condition can change quickly.
What is one of the most damaging aspects of formula-feeding in developing countries?
The formula is mixed with contaminated water.
The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) is used to assess a newborn's __________.
reflexes, physical states, responses to social stimulation, and central nervous system instability
In terms of pain, what did physicians believe about neonates until recent decades?
Neonates do not feel pain.
What type of intervention for low-birth-weight neonates has been shown to be so effective that it is used in more than three-fourths of neonatal intensive care units in the United States?
What is the current percentage of low-birth-weight neonates in the United States?
One way that neonates' sleep is distinctive is that they spend a high proportion of their sleep in __________.
Which taste do neonates prefer?
In cultures in which babies are held or carried around much of the day, __________.
prolonged episodes of crying are rare
Breast-feeding in developing countries is extremely important. UNICEF estimates that __________ babies die each year because they are bottle-fed rather than breast-fed.
__________ neonates have an infant death rate that is four times higher than that of __________ infants.
In developed countries, the primary cause of low birth weight is __________.
maternal cigarette smoking, use of alcohol, and other drugs
Feelings of intense sadness and anxiety that interferes with the mother's ability to carry out simple daily tasks are part of a condition called __________.
Your grandmother is convinced that formula is the best way to feed infants because that is the way that she was fed as an infant. Why did her mother's generation formula-feed rather than breast-feed?
Companies that produced formula convinced the public that formula feeding was the healthiest way to feed infants.
Which of the following are correlating factors as to whether a mother will breast-feed?
age, level of education, and socioeconomic status
An infant who is born weighing less than __________ pounds is considered low birth weight.
5.8 (2.5 kilograms)
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