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Psych 343 Final
Terms in this set (43)
How do behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation neural systems function differently across externalizing and internalizing psychological disorders?
BAS is the GAS and stimulates behavior. This creates ADHD, CD, ODD, activates you to do things.
BIS is the BREAKS and stops you from doing something. This creates anxiety, trauma, fear, stops you from doing maladaptive things.
What are the potential side effects of benzodiazepines for anxiety treatment?
Addictive, drowsiness, effective for acute (short-term) anxiety but not good for longterm.
What symptoms differentiate body dysmorphic disorder from anorexia nervosa?
Body dysmorphic: NOT EATING DISORDER. disorder characterized by a preoccupation with defects or flaws (physical deformity) in physical appearance that are not observable by or appear slight to others.
Anorexia nervosa: restriction of energy intake leading to significantly low body weight. Fear of getting fat and bad perception of body weight and size. Lack of recognition that body weight is low.
What is the difference between reliability and validity with respect to psychological tests?
Reliability: consistency across time (test-retest) and across clinicians (inter-rater).
Validity: does this measure what it is supposed to measure?
-->Construct: did your measure include all components of that characteristic?
-->Predictive: did your measure predict performance on some other outcome (ex: does GRE predict performance as graduate student).
How are anorexia nervosa and restrictive/selective food intake disorder different?
Anorexia nervosa: restriction of energy intake leading to "significantly low body weight". Fear of getting fat and bad perception of body weight and size. Lack of recognition that body weight is low.
Restrictive/selective food intake disorder: aversions to texture, taste, or smell of foods. Insufficient intake of calories that causes weight loss or deceleration in weight gain. Happens before age 6. ⅓ of children affected by this, equally common between boys and girls. Caused by poverty, parental mental illness, maternal eating disorder. EATING TOO LITTLE.
What physiological changes are associated with sympathetic nervous system activation?
How about parasympathetic nervous system activation?
Sympathetic: fight, flight, freeze, face. Increased heart rate, respiration, sweating. Takes place when there is a threat.
Parasympathetic: rest and digest. Lowered heart rate, relaxing, chilling.
What characteristics distinguish Autism Spectrum Disorder from Intellectual Disability?
ASD: more focused on problems with social interaction and restricted interest and behaviors.
ID: significantly low intellectual ability.
What do treatments for anxiety disorders and restrictive/avoidant food intake disorder have in common?
Exposure stuff to become desensitized (let them touch it, smell it, play with it, put it on their tongue).
How does nightmare disorder differ from night terror disorder?
Nightmare: unusual event happens in sleep, which causes child to wake up frightened.
Night terror: "can't be awaken", screaming (very distressed).
What can parents do to reduce their child's risk for developing anxiety disorders?
How would you distinguish major depression with hallucinations from schizophrenia?
Schiz: psychotic symptoms and other things like anhedonia.
MDD: mood dysregulation, plus psychotic symptoms.
What treatments are effective for circadian rhythm sleep disorders?
Behavioral treatment (keep a sleep-wake and daily activity log with regular bedtime and rise times).
How does childhood schizophrenia differ from Autism Spectrum Disorder? How would you distinguish one from the other?
COS: clear delusions and hallucinations (positive symptoms), later age onset.
ASD: odd and unusual behavior.
What features distinguish bulimia nervosa from binge eating/purging type anorexia?
Bulimia nervosa: consumption of large quantities of food, LOSS OF CONTROL. then COMPENSATORY BEHAVIOR. Egodystonic (want to be rid of disorder). Easier to treat than anorexia. NO compulsion.
Binging/purging type anorexia: involving periods of excessive eating, accompanied by a feeling of a LOSS OF CONTROL. It differs from bulimia primarily because of NO COMPENSATORY BEHAVIORS.
What is the difference between classical, prototypical, and dimensional approaches to diagnosing psychopathology?
Classical: clear distinction between disorders. Have to meet all symptoms and categorizes. If you are in one category, you cannot be in another one.
Prototypical: core characteristics for disorders that everyone must have, and some symptoms that you may or may not have (ex: must have all 3 of these symptoms, and then 2 of the following 6).
Dimensional: the degree to which you do or do not have these characteristics. On a spectrum, children possess them to varying degrees (ex: research dimensional).
Which disorders have been shown to have chiefly neurobiological etiologies? Which have more contribution of environment?
ODD and CD and ADHD and IED: neurobiological. Externalizing.
Anxiety and Depression: sociocultural. Internalizing.
What does effect size mean in treatment research? Why does effect size matter?
Essentially, the size of the effect. What is the magnitude of the improvement that happens after the intervention? Is the significance enough that it changes the child's behavior (clinically significant)?
In what ways has society's understanding of children's mental illness changed over the past 100 years?
100 years ago, they thought kids could not have mental illness. We treat disorders differently (differently than adults). We think of diversity in a different way (do not lock children away, but treat within families).
What factors increase risk for anorexia and bulimia among adolescents?
ideal of thinness on TV, mother's dieting patterns (most common in families)
also early maturation, being female
How does binge eating disorder differ from bulimia nervosa?
Binge eating: recurrent episodes of binge eating , with the mindset that there is LOSS OF CONTROL in this behavior. but WITHOUT COMPENSATORY BEHAVIORS.
Bulimia nervosa: consumption of large quantities of food in a discrete period of time, with the mindset that there is LOSS OF CONTROL in this behavior. Then COMPENSATORY BEHAVIOR (fasting, exercise, etc.). Unsuccessful at losing too much weight.
What are the primary tenants of developmental psychopathology?
How does a bioecological mode of development affect our understanding of child mental illness?
multiple systems affect the child, and child affects systems. The children function within systems, and systems function within the child. Integrates development.
What cognitive errors are common among individuals with anorexia nervosa?
Fear of getting fat and bad perception of body weight and size.
Lack of recognition that body weight is low.
Error in self-perception.
Perception of worth tied to weight (egosyntonic).
How do selective mutism and social anxiety disorder differ? What characteristics do they share?
Selective mutism: avoid speaking to unfamiliar adults.
Social anxiety disorder: anxiety about school performance, physical appearance, rejection, safety.
What is the utility of projective psychological tests? What is the theory upon which they are based?
The premise is that one projects their own experiences on the image. This allows children to look at the image, say what they see, and this in turn brings up the child's perception of safety and security, experiences, and way of seeing the world.
What sleep hygiene behaviors are used to treat sleep disorders?
Reading; save bed solely for sleeping; take a shower; singing; don't look at light before going to sleep. Basically make a bedtime routine.
What is psychomotor retardation? What does this symptom imply regarding the relative contribution of neurobiology vs. environment and cognitions? What disorders have psychomotor retardation as a potential symptom?
Neurobiological things show themselves in neurobiological ways. If everything slows down, more neurobiological contribution.
How would you distinguish an adjustment disorder from major depressive disorder?
Adjustment disorder: have a hard time adjusting to some big event that happens; lasts no longer than 6 months.
MDD: episodic (comes and goes). Lasts longer, keeps getting worse.
What is measurement error in psychological testing? Why is the concept important? How do confidence intervals relate to measurement error?
When we assess, there are not perfect predictions. Measurement error essentially says there is a certain amount of error in assessments. We use confidence intervals (range) to quantify the error in the test.
How do cognitive and behavioral therapies differ? How are they used in conjunction with one another?
Cognitive: identify and restructure cognitive errors. More effective with older kids.
Behavioral: reengage in rewarding activities. More effective with younger kids.
What types of stressful life events meet criteria for a traumatic event consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder?
Exposure to threatened death, injury, or violence and then extreme anxiety. Direct experience, witnessing. Experienced first-hand.
How would you distinguish separation anxiety disorder from social anxiety disorder?
Separation AD: being separated from attachment figures. More likely in young kids.
Social AD: anxiety about performance (school and work).
What distinguishes disinhibited social engagement disorder from reactive attachment disorder? Which is associated with externalizing pathology (e.g., ADHD)? Which is associated with internalizing pathology (e.g,, anxiety)?
Disinhibited social engagement disorder: overly familiar with people that they do not know.
Started out without attachment. Approach unfamiliar people a lot, and don't care to check in with parents.
Reactive attachment disorder: don't think people will stick around, so don't even try.
Started out without attachment. They then push away people, doubt likelihood that people will stay with them consistently.
How do projective tests differ from neuropsychological tests?
In what ways do the criteria for PTSD in children under 6 differ from the criteria for older children, adolescents, and adults?
Under 6: Avoidance. Nightmares.
Older: Cognitive characteristics (flashbacks).
What is the most effective treatment for enuresis in children?
Urine alarm (Alarm signals you to wake up when you urinate. That alarm tells brain to wake up, and that generalizes to the bladder being full producing same alertness. Trains the brain to wake up with bladder fullness. )
What characteristics distinguish disruptive mood dysregulation disorder from oppositional defiant disorder?
DMDD: Temper outbursts occur 3+ times per week and irritability.
ODD: consistently oppositional and angry. Blaming others, getting mad at people.
On a continuum from primarily neurobiological to primarily environmental etiology, where does social anxiety disorder fall? What about bipolar disorder?
What are the commonalities across treatments for PTSD and social anxiety disorder?
What is the difference between insomnia and hyper insomnia?
Insomnia: difficulties in falling and staying asleep.
Hyperinsomnia: feeling excessive sleepiness during the day.
What is conversion disorder?
conversion of psychological stress to physical symptoms (ex: mental stress over test causes leg to feel pain).
What is the difference between psychological and physiological dependence on substances of abuse?
Psychological: feel like you cannot function without that thing (coffee).
Physiological: withdrawal symptoms (ex: tremor, cognitive fuzziness).
Know strengths and weaknesses of different research designs:
Randomized clinical trial.
Case study: helps you learn a little about something that may not have been researched before.
RCT: randomly assign different interventions. Highest internal validity. Does my treatment produce change in symptoms?
Correlational: no determination about whether things are effective, but only helps you see correlations.
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