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Research exam 2 study guide
Terms in this set (66)
Difference between qualitative and quantitative research
- attempts to delve into concepts, ideas, definitions, characteristics, meanings, and symbols.
- Goal is to become more knowledgeable about the particular area of study in which you are interested
- Leads to new theories; gives details and insights
- tends to measure and count the numbers of responses
- Relies on finding information from a sample and projecting the findings onto a larger population
- provides generalizations
Advantages and disadvantages of qualitative research
Advantages: provides rich data and adds depth
Disadvantages: time consuming, less able to be generalized, expensive, access to observing can't be negotiated
qualitative and quantitative: goals, types of data/information, and how they are contributing to each other
- goal: is to become more knowledgeable about the particular area of study in which you are interested; description
- Types of data: inductive reasoning, observation and conversation, data as words and pictures
- Goal: is to classify and count and it helps test theories
- Types of data: is used as numbers and statistics as well as a literature review in advance
- The best kind of research is often a combination of both. Combining the two may result in a kind of research synergy that produces more detailed results than if they were not combined.
- They have complementary contributions to the success of research
What assumptions bind qualitative research?
1. Active Individuals
2. Word of Meaning
3. From the participants perspective
4. Multiple truths
Definition: because meaning arises within, people are constantly interpreting what things mean and responding accordingly.
- Qualitative researchers see the world as made up of active, interpreting individuals forging purposeful lines of action to accomplish everyday.
- Example: a simple case of a person crossing the street. As outside observers, we might note that a person remains stationary until the image of an outstretched hand is replaced by the person crossing the street. A quantitative researcher might say this is due to stimulus response behavior. A qualitative researcher might say that this behavior is an example of meaningful interpretation followed by a purposeful course of action.
Word of Meaning
Definition: meaning is not static; it changes over time and place, within context, and within people.
- Understand the meaning and you'll understand the behavior because behavior follows meaning.
- Two or more people can agree on what something means.
- Example: Something you have accomplished may have one meaning for you at the time of the accomplishment; 10 years later it may have a different meaning. The accomplishment hasn't changed at all but it may be more or less important to you
From the participants perspective
Definition: to understand behavior, you must be able to uncover the meaningful objects in people's worlds and understand those objects from the perspective of the people being studied.
- Example: any given product may have one meaning for the producer, another for the distributors, and yet other meanings for different groups of consumers.
Definition: no single, determinable truth exists.
- Instead, there are truths to be found, these truths are bound by the time, context, and the individuals who believe them.
- Example: if you are at a business dinner, and your potential employee takes a piece of bread and uses it to soak up the entree juice from his dinner plate. In an American restaurant, they would be seen as having few to no social skills and no etiquette. But, in France that would be seen as perfectly normal and acceptable.
How multiple methods are different from mixed methods
- Multiple methods is when you use more than one research approach to the respondents, but within the qualitative research category or within the quantitative research category, and not mixing the two.
- Mixed methods are when you use multiple methods but from both "communities" (quantitative research and qualitative research).
- An example of mixing methods would be to combine survey research with an interview. Survey researchers can add understanding to their findings by interviewing some respondents, but the boundaries of the understanding are predetermined by the survey questions.
What is the projective technique?
psychological approaches involving the use of stimuli that allows participants to project their subjective or deep-seated beliefs onto other people or objects.
Different types of projective techniques
5. Choice ordering
6. Perceptual mapping
- when an interviewer sats a word and the respondent must mention the first thing that comes to mind
- Used with brand names, campaign themes, and product slogans
- Goal is to explore how brand is perceived by consumers
- asking the participants to construct a story or picture from stimulus concept
- Requires more complex and controlled intellectual activity than mere
- Useful when subject has some understanding about the subject
- Respondents complete sentences or stories in their own words
- Used to avoid embarrassing questions and hostility
- Ask participants to role-play, act out, or tell a story a specific concept or
- Useful when respondents are not able to describe their feelings of actions
- when participants explain why certain things are more important than others.
- participants are given a stimulus and then asked to rank order a list of associated benefits or features from most important to least important
- attempts to visually display the perceptions of participants relative to several dimensions
- Group of 6-12 participants who are lead by a moderator in an in-depth discussion on a topic
- Goal: to learn and understand deep insight of consumer behavior in a group setting
What FGI is appropriate or inappropriate?
- you are looking for the range of ideas or feelings that people have about something
- you are trying to understand differences in perspectives between groups or categories of people (e.g users vs non users)
- to uncover various factors that influence opinions, behavior, or motivations
- you want ideas to emerge from the group
- you want people to come to a consensus
- you are asking sensitive information
- you need statistical projections (generalizable results)
- to save time and money in data collection process
- environment is emotionally charged (we are nt debating on a topic)
When to use FGI
- The range of ideas of feelings people have
- Understand differences in perspectives
- To uncover various factors that influence opinions
- Want ideas to emerge from the group (group synergy)
FGI Planning Process
- Invite enough people
- Recruit earlier and remind them
- Start with a general question
-Use probing and projective techniques
Setting the tone
- Keep track of time
- Provide name tag
Different roles in FGI
- Moderator: Moderating the group and analyze the results
- Collecting and organizing feedback:
Note taking, analyzing feedback prepare a transcript
- Facilitator: Recruit, greet and help participant
Advantages and Disadvantages of FGI
- Observers can record
- Communicated verbally and nonverbally
- Explore broad topics
- Testing various hypotheses
- Findings can be misleading
- The group interview itself unnatural
- Limited time to get in depth
- Small sample size
What is a rapport? Why is it important?
access trust and cooperation ( example is an ice broker before interview so everyone gets more comfortable.)
Best uses of IDIs
- Dealing with sensitive topics
- Reaching out difficult to reach respondents (CEOS)
- Speed is crucial
- Deeper insights is required
- Applied learning is the goal (further probing )
Characteristics of IDI
- Conducted from participants point of view
-Conducted in natural settings where participants feels comfortable and use contextual info
- Long durations
- Success of interview depends on gaining rapport (access trust and cooperation)
GOAL: to understand the participants world in the way the participants does and in the concept the participant uses
Strengths and weakness of IDI
- Time is quicker and more flexible compared to FGI
- More in-depth knowledge than FGI
- More controlled in research setting (smaller sample size=east control)
- Hard to gain access to consumer's true feelings
- Hard to generalize the results to the entire population
- Unnatural setting compared to observation
How to conduct IDI
1. Choose moderator/interviewer
2. Find respondents
3. Determine sample size and scope of the study
4. Discussion guide
5. Move from broad to specific questions
Two types of IDI interviews
1. structured interview: all questions are prepared in advance and you cannot divert from the prepared questions (used in quantitative research)
2. semi-structured: major questions prepped in advance, allows new questions to be included (qualitative research)
What are different ways of interpreting qualitative data
- systemic observations and competent interpretation. they must match up with reality and thus must be credible if not completely consistent
- read with a critical eye to assess whether the research is accurate, complete, and relevant
Handling of Qualitative data
- the task of handling qualitative data involves organizing all of those raw collections of information
- qualitative researchers often begin with preliminary scanning of the respondents responses (to find a general theme or outline)
- the three main stages are 1) data collection 2) data analysis and 3) development of theory
What is the goal of qualitative research and how its goal is achieved?
The goal of the research report is a narrative account that describes the study and its results, draws theoretical insights, as well as some practical applications
Authors often achieve this goal through the use of...
- field notes
- transcripts of interviews
- documentation of responses,
- careful interpretation of what all these things mean
- open: (conceptual/thematic coding): developing different themes (open code) emerged from raw data
- axial: Find relationships among themes developed from open coding stage
- selective: find a bigger concept/theme that includes themes from 2 previous coding stages
What is cognitive mapping?
- Visual representation of the interrelationships between specific facts, themes, and meta-themes
- Help account planners clearly understand the key findings (relationship of themes) of qualitative research.
Important tips- Make sure to highlight the relative importance of factors
cognitive map procedure
1) Write the name of the topic category, product, or brand under exploration in the center/top
2) Read the entire transcript and organize quotes by theme
- Identify the area of focus in the quote with a descriptive label (theme)
- Address areas of focus sequentially, completing one before beginning work on another area (one at a time)
3) Find the connection between each theme (Axial Coding)
- Group or organize different themes identified from open coding process
4) Find a meta theme (grouping theme) that will group different themes together by each objective (Selective Coding process)
- The process of obtaining information from a subset of a larger group
- Hopefully that subset is statistically representative of the general population
- The goal is to describe the nature of a target population.
- Obtain information from valid participants is important
- Sample target population: ex. Millennials
- The group who you want to learn certain facts about our who you wish to generalize your data
- Shares some common set of characteristics
the group of people who want to partake in your research, although not everyone in your sample will participate
- people who typically participate represent a subset of the population
the list of people you select for your sample
(theoretical population)/ entire population you would like to survey
the population that will actually be accessible
- Everyone in the population has equal chance of being selected
- Projection (generalization) of the results from sample is possible (when you have enough sample size)
- Samples have been selected in a nonrandom manner.
- Projection (generalization) of the results from sample is limited (Although you have enough sample size)
advantages and disadvantages of non probability sampling
- Sampling error cannot be computed
- Representativeness of the sample is not known
- Results cannot and should not be projected to population
- Cost less than probability samples
- Can be conducted quicker than probability samples
- Are reasonably representative if executed in a reasonable manner (e.g. hard to reach target such as snowball sample of executives)
• Convenience (grab, accidental, opportunity)
- A sample based on using people who are easily accessible (typically by
(e.g. mall intercepts, use of college students in classroom for the study of young consumers, use of social media to recruit participants)
•Purposive(judgmental ,selective, subjective)
- When researchers have identified specific characteristics of a population
that match quite well with the purpose of the study
(e.g. car accident victim, specific brand users, expert groups)
- Sample selection criteria are based on the researcher's personal
judgment about the representativeness of the population under study
• Snow-ball (chain, referral)
- A sample in which additional respondents are selected based on
referrals from initial respondents (e.g. study of marathon runners).
- Good for a hard to reach target
• Quota: (Stratified sample with no random selection) Select people non-randomly according to some fixed quota
• random: All participants have the equal chance of being selected (need a LIST/SAMPLING FRAME of participants).
Simple random sample of mutually exclusive subsets.
1. Divide your population into homogeneous subgroups
2. Taking a simple random sample in each subgroup
• Cluster: simple random sample of subset area within population
- Useful when a sampling frame is not available (e.g. no list of students)
1. Divide population into clusters (e.g. divide campus into 6 clusters and some sub- clusters within each cluster)
2. Randomly choose any clusters3. Measure all units (census) in chosen clusters
Types of questions used in qualitative research
- Open-ended: Respondents answer questions in their own words (no limitations on response option) -> no measurements is needed
- Closed-ended: respondents answer questions in a finite list of responses (limited response option) need specific measurements!!
FOUR LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT SCALE (NOIR)
- Nominal & Ordinal = descriptive statistics (ex. Frequency, percentage, mode) results only applies to the sample who participated in survey (can not be project to the entire population)
- Interval & ratio = inferential statistics (mean) results can be projected to the population where the sample was drawn
- absolute zero
- no value of the choose
- highest level of measurement
- open-ended questions
--- ex: height, length, weight, media usage
- similar to ordinal but distance/space between each answer are equal but no true zero
- semantic differential scale
- in many cases numbers are used in interval scales
- thermometer scale and likert
- ex: celsius degree
- attributes can be ordered
- ranking and ordering questions
- rank order, likert scale
"please indicate your approximate age"
a. 12-18 b. 18-25 c. 25-40 d. 40+
- attributes are only named (weakest form)
- works well with skip patterns, categorization, or demographic
"what is your gender?"
1. male 2. female
1. yes 2. no
Research considerations in survey
- geographical stratification
- costs per return
-personal or sensitive information
- data collection deadline
- quantity of data
- double negatives (Don't you agree that teenagers under 15 shouldn't drive?)
- double barreled (Do you like bananas and apple?) if respondent says yes you don't know which they meant
-Leading question: suggesting preferred answer in the question, make respondent hard to disagree
- Loaded Question (more subtle than leading Qs.): include a statement about reason for doing something in the question
• Implies some fact that has been previously established
applied learning (IDI)
the moderator can quickly determine within a few interviews if there is a theme present
When probability sampling provides generalizability, non-probability sampling does not provide generalizability (project/generalize findings from sample to the population) to research study.
Simple random sampling requires detailed listing of the population of interest (e.g., list of students in a school for survey of student satisfaction of the school.)
Which one of the following is NOT probability sampling method?
When you step on the bathroom scale to measure your height not weight, this is the example of lack of validity of the measurement.
Semantic differential scale that uses pairs of adjectives in a simple way to measure individual's attitude (e.g., My attitude toward TCU is negative-------- positive) is __________ scale of measurement.
What is survey research?
a method of asking questions to respondents
When is survey needed?
- collecting data over broad population (generalizable)
- descriptive data is needed (numeric)
- new data is needed for existing data are in sufficient to make intelligent and informed decisions
- poor question order may bias survey results
- logical sequence is important
1. intro and consent form: study objective, rationale for study, asking cooperation, classification questions
2. main body: questions that address the research study's information needs
3. conclusion: more invasive
A: Total population of the specific demographic group (row base)
B: NEVER BE ASKED ABOUT THIS
C: Projected # of brand users in the population
D (% DETAIL): % of specific demographic group out of all brand users
E: % TARGET: % brand users in the specific demographic group
F: INDEX: likeliness of using a brand in comparison to general public
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