American Studies II Final Terms

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Johnsons appeal in which Congress granted him the authority "to take all necessary measures & steps" to defend U.S. armed forces & to protect Southeast Asia against aggression. Was secretly drafted 6 weeks be4 the incident, passed the Senate on August 7th w/only 2 dissenting votes & moved unanimously through the house. Undersecretary of State Nicholas Katzenbach referred to it as a Functional equivalent of a declaration of war. Tet Offensive
village in Vietnam, Calley lead US troops in to attack the villages they suspected of harboring the Viet Cong, bloody & nasty conflict created by US troop on innocent people, Calley is later tried for premeditated murder of 104 Vietnamese people, said to be an atrocity by soldiers and people who say the nasty, bloody, deadly results Watergate.
Governor & Senator of Georgia, won election of 1976. Foreign policy based on "Moral Principles." He reformed & restricted practices of the CIA. He issued his own Doctrine in addition to the Monroe doctrine, asserting U.S. determination in protecting its interests in the Persian Gulf. He heightened Cold War policies esp. in signing Presidential Directive 59, increasing production of weapons & military budget. Boycotted 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow.
April 22, Senator Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin & CA Rep Paul Pete McCloskey invited Americans to devote an entire day to discuss the environment. Nearly 20mil Americans gathered in local parks, high schools & colleges at the nation's capital. Green peace symbols & sang "All we are saying is give earth a chance."
Henry Ford*His creation of the Highlands Park assembly line helped him to establish one of the great industries of the 1920s.* In 1914 he inaugurated a new wage scale: $5 for an eight-hour day (it was double the going pay rate).McNary-Huagen Bills*This farm bill was passed by congress twice in the 1920s & both times it was vetoed by Calvin Coolidge.* Important initiative for federal farm relief. A series of complicated measures designed to prop up & stabilize farm prices. Government would purchase farm surpluses & either store them until prices rose or sell them on the world market.KDKAradio station founded by Harry P. Davis. *Provided the first broadcast in America in 1920 when it covered the presidential election.* Located at Westinghouse main plant.George Herman (Babe) Ruth*This baseball icon of the 1920s started w/ the Baltimore Orioles & gained his fame later w/ the NY Yankees.* Dubbed "The Sultan of Swat"FlapperPortrayed on screen, in the press, & in novels as a young, sexually aggressive woman w/ bobbed hair, rouged cheeks, and short skirt. She loved to dance to jazz music, enjoyed smoking cigarettes, & drank bootleg liquor in cabarets & dance halls. She could be competitive, assertive & a good palWarren Harding*This senator from Ohio was successful in defeating James Cox for the Presidency in 1920.* Republican President from 1921- 1923. Handsome, genial & well spoken he looked the part of a president. . His administration is best known for its involvement in scandals. Died in office 1923.Teapot Dome Scandal*This scandal involved Albert Fall as Secretary of Interior & his leasing of government protected land in the west.* Fall received hundreds of thousands of dollars in payoffs when he secretly leased navy oil reserves in Wyoming & Elk Hills, California to two private oil developers.Calvin CoolidgeRepublican from Vermont & served as governor of MA, succeeded the Presidency following Harding's death in 1923. He believed in the least amount of govt possible. Won 1924 election against Democrat John W. Davis. His philosophy, "The business of America is business" & was Nicknamed "Silent Cal"Washington Conference 1947reps from Britain, Japan, Italy, France and China (led by Hughes) discussed reductions in military budgets, Hughes offers to scrap 30 major US ships and asks other countries to do something comparable, asks for ten year moratorium on the construction of new battleships and cruisers, proposes limitations on naval tonnage - leads to signing of the Five-Power Treaty agreeing to these principals and pledged to respect territorial integrity of China. Italians & Japanese complain, treaty abandonedRed Scarefuels nativist passions along with the "100 percent American fervor" of the war years, 1919-1920, linked foreigners with Bolshevism and radicalism of all kinds in the popular mind.Johnson-Reed immigration Act1924, revises Immigration Act of 1921, sets quotas of 2 percent of the number of foreign-born counted for each nationality in the census for 1890 (maximum that could immigrate from each country/nationality was 2 percent of who lived here in 1890), when far fewer southern or eastern Europeans were present in the US, cuts maximum number of immigrants to 164,000 (from 357,000 in immigration act), excludes countries of the western hemisphere.Volstead Act1919, establishes a Federal Prohibition bureau to enforce the 18th amendment (bureau ends up being very understaffed)Black TuesdayOct 29, 1929 Dow Jones industrials stock values declined. Over 16mil shares (more than double previous record) were traded as panic selling took hold. Previous boom had led to steep market decline.RFCCreated by Hoover's administration in 1932 based on the War Finance Corp. of WWI. Designed to make govt credit available to ailing banks, RR's, insurance companies & other businesses. It saved numerous banks & businesses from going under but did not improve recovery. Emergency Relief Act authored Congress to lend $300mil to states who exhausted their own relief funds.Bonus Army1932 army of WWI Veterans descended on Washington DC demanding immediate payment of a $1,000 bonus previously promised to them in 1924. Their lobbying convinced the House to pass a bill for immediate payment but Senate rejected the bill & most veterans left. Remaining veterans evicted by Macarthur's troops.FDRDemocratic governor of NY, elected President in 1932. Only Pres elected to 4 terms therefore he served during the great depression & WWII. He inaugurated a 40 yr period in which Democrats=majority party. "Brains trust," were his key advisors. He believed in govt Business Corporation & established his New Deal policy to combat the depression. He also gave "fireside chats," radio broadcasts as a political technique.Emergency Banking Actgave the Pres broad discretionary powers over all banking transactions & foreign exchange. It authorized healthy banks to reopen under license from the treasury dept & provided for greater federal authority in managing the affairs of failed banks. By March half of nation's banks were reopened, banking crisis ended.CCC(Civilian Conservation Corps) established as unemployment relief effort, provided work for jobless young men in protecting & conserving the nation's natural resources. Road construction, reforestation, flood control & national park improvements. Employed more than 2.5mil youth.WPA(Works Progress Admin) *This agency, which was created in 1935 & headed by Harry Hopkins, was responsible for overseeing thousands of government funded construction jobs.* (Works project Admin) employed thousands of jobless artists, musicians, actors, writers & teachers to focus on their specific talents 7 brought entertainment for ppl who couldn't afford it.Huey LongLouisiana's flamboyant backcountry orator, posed the greatest potential threat to Roosevelt's leadership, captured Louisiana's governorship in 1928 by attacking the state's entrenched oil industry and calling for a radical redistribution of wealth, significantly improved public education, roads, medical care and other public services winning the loyalty of the state's poor farmers and industrial workers, elected to the US senate in 1930 and first supported Roosevelt but in 1934 his own presidential ambitions and his impatience with the pace of the New Deal led to a break with Roosevelt, organized the Share Our Wealth Society to break up the swollen fortunes of American and spread the wealth among all people, proposed a 2500 dollar annual income for everyone, "Every Man a King" slogan won many supporters even though his economics fuzzy, may have been elected president if he wasn't assassinated in September 1935.Wagner Act- *legislation aka the National Labor Relations Act, provided the opportunity for workers to bargain collectively & join unions, & it was passed in 1935.* Described as the "Magna Carta for labor," the law led to union growth.Social Security Act*This legislation, passed in 1935, created retirement insurance as well as aid to dependant children.*Francis Perkins*She became the first woman in American history to be appointed to a cabinet position for any president when she was given the post of Secretary of Labor.* (under FDR's admn)Schecter v U.S.1935, court finds the National Recovery Administration unconstitutional in its entirety on these grounds: excessive delegation of legislative power to the executive branch and the regulation of business that was intrastate as opposed to national. aka"Sick Chicken Case"Walt Disney*This cartoonist became famous when he created full length animated films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.*New DealFDR's policy for economic recover. Fed govt provided per capita payment for welfare, work relief & loans. Had profound impact on West. Transformed western agriculture, water & energy sources, & Indian policy. Propelled the west into the modern era.Fascistsdoctorial leaders, extreme right conservatives against social democrats. Believed in philosophy of aggression, taking countries & expanding. *This political philosophy, that espoused expansion & militarism, flourished in Europe during the 1920s & 1930s.Adolf Hitler*This Austrian became the leader of Germany following the election of 1933.* He intended to make Germany the center of a new civilization and acted towards his imperial vision, "Lebensraum (living space)." Wrote Mein Kemp, "My Struggle" while in jail for Treason.Kristallnacht"Night of Broken Glass" Nov 10, 1938 Nazis round up, bat & murdered Jews. They smashed windows in Jewish shops, hospitals, orphanages & burned synagogues. Nazi state sponsored revenge for the assassination of a German diplomat by a Polish -Jew.Lend Lease*This legislation, which was passed in March of 1941,gave the president the power to provide Great Britain w/ war materials & receive payment at a later time.Atlantic Charter*This meeting took place in 1941 between Winston Churchill & FDR to discuss the future of the world after war.* Called for free trade among all nations, an end to territorial seizures & disarmaments. Right to Self-determination goes back to Roosevelt's 14pts.Office of Strategic Services(OSS) created by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in order to access the enemy's militant strength, to gather intelligence information, and to oversee espionage activities, headed by Colonel William Donovan who envisioned the OSS as an "adjunct to military strategy" & engaged leading social scientists to plot psychological warfare against the enemyExecutive Order 9066*Franklin Roosevelt issued this presidential order in 1942 following the invasion of Pearl Harbor.* suspends the civil rights of Japanese Americans and by August 1942 virtually every West Coast resident who had at least one Japanese grandparents had been interned.Executive Order 8802makes it mandatory for Negroes to be permitted to work, Randolph reviewed several drafts before approving the text that was signed on June 25, 1941, bans discrimination in defense industries and government, president implements a Fair Employment Practices Committee to hear complaints and take appropriate steps to redress grievances.Dwight Eisenhowersupreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe. Moderate/ conservative candidate, won the election of 1952 against Stevenson, * This former president warned America, as he was leaving office to beware of the military Industrial Complex.*Operation Overlord1944 Allies campaign to retake the European continent w/ a decisive counterattack through France (Normandy). Began w/ a preinvasion air assault that dropped 76,000 tons of bombs on Nazi targets. Invasion officially began on D-Day June 6, 1944.Island HoppingU.S. navy and marine corps used this strategy of moving from island to island to capture atolls from Japanese defenders and clear a path to Japan. (1st one at Tarawa)Manhattan ProjectRoosevelt's plan to create an atomic weapon in time to affect the outcome of war. Directed by army corps of engineers.Cold WarThis book, written in 1947 by Walter Lippmann, identified & examined the foreign policy of the government in the post-war period.GI Bill of Rightsaka Servicemen's Readjustment Act, *This legislation, passed in 1944, provided financial assistance to returning veterans from WWII, for home purchasing, education, & other benefits.*Truman DoctrineMarch 12, 1947 foreign policy pledged the US to the containment of communism in Europe & elsewhere. Authorized US intervention to support any nation whose stability was threatened by communism or the Soviet Union. Originated as the Greek Turkish Aid Bill to assist these two countries in resisting totalitarian regimeMarshall Plan*this plan, aka he European Recovery Program, called for U.S. dollars being used to help reconstruct Western Europe. *N.A.T.O. (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)* This alliance formed in 1949 included the U.S., Canada, & most of Western European Countries.* Served as a military alliance/ mutual defense pact in which an armed attack against one or more of them would be considered an attack against all.National Security Act*this legislation passed in 1947, produced a new agency called the Central Intelligence Agency.* Laid the foundation for expansion & established the Dept. of Defense to administer and coordinate defense policies and to advise the president.Alger Hiss*Whittaker Chambers accused this man of passing him secret papers, intended for the Soviet Union. *Fair Deal*Truman's platform*, domestic agenda laid out in 1949. Conversion of gov. from New Deal policy.Richard Nixon*One of the leaders of the House Un-American Activities Committee was this congressman from California.* Served as VP to Eisenhower & gave famous "Checkers Speech" over scandal.Korean War*"Sour Little War"*conflict between North Korea and South Korea, thought of a as a civil war by most, Truman thinks it's a major Soviet test of the US's policy of containment, North Korea (communist) moves into South Korea (supported by the US), Truman sends UN troops, Seoul (capital of SK) falls to NK quickly, situation appears grim as NK took over the whole peninsula, MacArthur carries out amphibious landing at Inchon, halts the communists & takes over SK, Truman tries to push communists all the way back to the Chinese border, China gets involved and pushes UN troops back to SK, UN troops push back to the 38th parallel and stalemate is eventually reached in 1951.Election 1952*in this election, the two candidates were Adlai Stevenson & Dwight Eisenhower.*Department of HEW (Health Education and Welfare)Cabinet level Dep in 1953, developed to promote the New Deals greater responsibility for social welfare. Appointed Oveta Culp Hobby as secretaryNational Highway act1956 Boosted the suburbs by authorizing &32 bill for the construction of a national interstate highway system. By 1972 it was the largest public works program in American history. Financing came from new taxes & stimulated the automobile industry & suburban building. Also accelerated the decline of mass transit & older cities.Feminine Mystique*this book regarding the problems faced by women in the post WWII era was written by Betty Friedan.*Jonas Salkpioneered the first effective vaccine against disease using a preparation of killed virus in 1955.Elvis Presleyrock n' roll performer and recording artist who reinvented American popular music and challenged the old lines separating black music from white, and pop from rhythm and blues or country. Symbol of rebellious youth.James DeanIn "Rebel without a Cause" played an emotionally troubled youth in an affluent California suburb. Widely imitated teen idol of the era.Allen Ginsbergexpelled from Columbia. wrote the epic poem "Howl" which was published then confiscated and led to a trial. one of the best selling poetry books.Military Industrial ComplexWhat Eisenhower warned against gaining too much influence when he left office. Arms manufacturing in U.S. , companies manufacture missiles for war.U-2 Flights*These CIA spy planes flew intelligence gathering missions over the soviet union in the 1950s. *Mossadegh*this Iranian leader was overthrown in the 1950s when he tried to nationalize the oil industry in his country.*Ho Chi Minh*this Vietnamese leader, who was an ally of the US during WWII, eventually became an enemy of the US beginning in 1955.* His forces go against French rule in Dien Bien Phu, France wants aid from US over the conflict.Domino Theory*this theory developed by John F. Dulles insisted that the spread of communism could happen in a given region once one country in that region fell to communism. *Bay of Pigs*In 1960, President Eisenhower ordered the CIA to train Cuban exiles for an invasion of their homeland at this location.* overall huge FAIL that Kennedy is embarrassed about.Cuban Missile Crisis*this crisis, which occurred in 1962, put the Soveit Union & the US on the brink of nuclear warfare.* most serious confrontation of the Cold War.John F. Kennedywon election of 1960, New Frontier was his liberal/ domestic policy, he was criticized as a weak diplomat. Assassinated at Dali Plaza TX, Nov 22, 1963.Rosa Parksseamstress & well known activist in Montgomery's AA community. Taken from a bus, arrested & put in jail for refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger on Dec1, 1955. She also served 12 yrs as secretary of the local NAACP chapter. Known as the "Mother of the Civil Rights Movement"Jackie Robinson1947 broke color barrier in major league baseball by winning rookie-of-the-year honors w/ the Brooklyn Dodgers. Paved way for future black ballplayers.Brown v Board of EducationDec 1952-1955 Supreme Court decision grouped cases from Kansa, Delaware, S.C, Virginia & District of Columbia all under one ruling. Involved issue of Separate but equal in school systems, court concluded that separate was inherently equal.Little Rock CrisisArkansas controversy over school integration caused a test between state & fed power. Federal Court ordered desegregation of schools beginning in Sept 1957, but Governor Orval Faubus made campaign to defy order. Eisenhower had to place Arkansas National Guard under fed control & ordered 101st Airborne Div troops to protect 9 black students & integrate Little Rock High school (Sept24)MLK jr.Leader of SCLC and Montgomery bus boycott. On cover of TIME. Civil rights activist. "I HAVE A DREAMM!!" created his "six key lessons from the year long struggle"SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)led by MLK (president) with 100 black ministers. Treasurer Reverend Ralph Abernathy. Called upon black people "to understand that nonviolence is not a symbol of weakness or cowardice... but Transforms it into it into strength"; did not spark the mass movement that was needed at that time.Greensborosparked the mass movement needed at the time (HAHA sucks for you MLK cuz you got beat out by college students!) Feb 1, 1960: 4 black freshmen from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College at Greensboro sat down at the whites-only lunch counter in Woolworth's. They politely ordered but were never given their food. They stayed at the counter until closing time (stubborn kids!) the next day, word of their protest had spread and they showed up with over 25 supporters. The # of supporters grew each day. Resulted in many sit-in protests. On July 25, 1960 the 1st African American ate at Woolworth's.Civil Rights Act 1957created Civil Rights division within the Justice Department. Authorized the attorney general to seek court injections to protect people denied their right to vote.Robert KennedyAttorney general. Telephoned judge, getting MLK removed from jail. Assembled a brilliant staff of attorneys to fight segregation outside of Washington wherever racial segregation arose. Dispatched 500 federal marshals to the University if Mississippi to protect James Meredith.George WallaceAlabama governor who threatened to personally block the admission of 2 black students to the state university (stopped by president and National Guard)Medgar Evansdirector of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan.Voting Rights Act 1965signed by Johnson in August of 1965, authorized federal support of registration in states and counties where fewer than half of the voting-age residents were registered, outlawed literacy tests that had been used to prevent blacks from registering to vote.Peace Corppart of Kennedy's New Frontier program in which thousands of young men & woman traveled overseas to build up underdeveloped countries. They provided technical & educational assistance in setting up health care programs & improving agriculture efficiency.Woodstocka 3 day rock concert at a farm in NY in August 1969. 400,000 people gathered to give witness to ideals of counterculture. Drugs, stripping, sex, and other naughty actions took place. LOL. Renamed Woostick Nation by media. Efforts to create new community and peaceful alternatives to war. "Make Love, Not War."Roe v. Wade1973 Supreme Court ruled that state laws outlawing abortion during the first two trimesters of pregnancy were unconstitutional bc they violate a woman's right to privacy. Legalized abortion on demand. (Norma McCovery = Jane Roe- allowed to terminate pregnancy).Robert KennedyNY senator and candidate of choice. Strong civil rights record and saw war as a mirror of injustice at home. Nation be told the truth about war (during tet offensive) democrat. Supported by African Americans and Latinos. Assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan.Watergate1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security guard foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committee Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped downWar Powers Actpassed a few days after the US declared war on Germany & established a precedent for executive authority that would endure long after the war's end - president gains the power to reorganize the federal government and create new agencies, to establish programs censoring all news and information and abridging civil liberties, seize property owned by foreigners and to award government contractions without competitive biddingPanama Canalconnection between Atlantic and pacific Oceans through the Isthmus of Panama. Gave US commercial advantage in western hemisphere.Three Mile Island (TMI)Harrisburg Pennsylvania, where a series of mechanical problems & judgment errors occurred at a nuclear generation facility on March 28, 1979. 2/3 of nuclear core was uncovered, causing the formation of a dangerously explosive hydrogen bubble & a massive release of radioactive gas into the atmosphere & posing danger of catastrophic core meltdown. Governor Thornburgh announced situation was stabilized in 10 days