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What is different about hominoidea locomation when compared to monkeys
all hominoideas have hand derived forms of locomotion
What kind of locomotion do these use
Why might gibbons and siamangs perform vocal duets?
Territory: the portion of the range that is actively defended against incursion by con-specifics (reinforce spacing between different groups)
Does true monogamy characterize gibbons
no because adult membership changes regularly as a result of death, mate desertion, or displacement
What type of social group characterizes the orangutan? Why is this?
solitary but social. Because they are tied to their feeding ecology
What is the function of a male orangutan's long calls?
may serve as spacing mechanism and as advertisement for receptive females
How do different populations of chimpanzees differ in their hunting strategies?
*Thai forest: coordinated hunts (hunt red colobus)
*Gombe: disorganized hunts (hunt red colobus but also, bushpig, bush back and baboons)
What social group do gibbons have
gibbons have pairbonded groups that comprise of 2 adults and 1-3 offspring
Compare chimpanzees and bonobos in terms of their social organization
1 male philopatric
2 female transfer, establish initial relationships with males
3 male dominance and strong male bonds
1 male philopatric
2 female transfer, establish initial onds with dominant female
3 females are co-dominant or dominent females from the core
Compare chimpanzees and bonobos in terms of their behavioral differences
1 more territorial
2 often more aggressive
1. peaceful with neighbors
2. sex to diffuse aggression
Describe the primate biomes
major primate biomes of the earth are tropical and located in central and south America/Africa and asia
what are tropical rainforest characteristics
100 inches of rainfall per yr, most plant species are ever green, rainfall and temperature fairly even throughout the year
describe the canopy layer
connected canopy creates an arboreal highway for primates to move through looking for resources
describe the understory layer
darker more humid environment no consististent layer, more difficult to move
What are the different ways that seeds
primate seed swallowing, seed spitting, and seed predation
what happens when a tree is cut down
1. Wipe out many micro habitats
2. Sunlight comes in and dries out forest floor
What is Leibig's law of minimum
•Factors that are limited in supply will limit the size of the population and may affect behavior and other adaptations
Ex. Howler monkeys try new plants that are toxic
What are some characteristics of a seasonal tropical forest?
•Stratification of forest is greatly reduced and trees are further apart with few continuous canopies
•A higher frequency of deciduous trees
•More seasonal rainfall and thus influences food resources are more limited
What are some challenges primates might face in the seasonal tropical forest
Stratification reduced and trees further apart with few continuous canopies
More seasonal food
•Predators again pose a threat
What are the characteristics of a tropical savanna?
•Trees are present but sparsely distributed
What are some challenges primates might face in the tropical savanna
Acacia trees have large thorns and ants (Difficult to procure)
Describe a semi-desert scrub biome. What are some major challenges to primates? and what primate species inhabits this area
•Rain falls only during a short wet season if it falls at all
•No major trees, very barren
Cliff faces-limit how far one can travel during the day
Food and water
• Hamadryas baboons
What are the nutritional requirements of primates? What must all animals have,
including primates, to keep them healthy?
source of energy (carbs and fats)
ability to maintain, repair, and build tissure (Proteein)
regulate body process (vitamins and minerals)
why cant primates eat just leaves for their protein source
secondary compounds (could be poisonous)
lots of fiber, which means lots of work
flowers are highly seasonal
Why is a banana a high quality food
because it has concentrated energy and its low in fiber (easy to digest)
What are some ecological constraints on primate feeding behavior?
1. primates must seek out complimentary foods to meet their daily requirements
2. chemical defenses of potential food items (secondary compounds)
3. fiber content
4. limited availability
5. incomplete nutrition
6. distribution of foods: major factor in how primates more around.
How is body size important in foraging strategies?
the bigger you are you can eat a lot of crappy food and the smaller you are the more higher quality food you want but still cant eat as much as bigger folks
How does BMR (basal metabolic rate) relate to body size? Provide some examples
BMR does not scale directly with body size it scales to the power of .75
this means that as body size goes up BMR goes down and as bodysize goes down BMR goes up
How might the gut morphology look of a primate that concentrates on leaves as a
main dietary resource? Gums? Fruit? Insects
LEAVES= Enlarged gut-either stomach or cecum (sacculated stomach)
FRUIT=long small intestines
INSECTS= short simple gut
Compare and contrast spider monkeys and howler monkeys in terms of diet, day
range, weight, and digestive features.
fruit 72% Leaves 22%
Flowers 6% Weight 6-8kg
Brainsize 107g Day range 915m
fruit 42% Leaves 48%
Flowers 10% Weight 6-8kg
Brainsize 50.3g Day range 915m
What kind of a diet are humans adapted for
high quality diet rich in foods such as fruits, oil rich seeds, insects, and vertebrate prey
What are there differences
between males and females in mortality rates?
♣In general, male primates suffer higher mortality rates than females
What are some behavioral examples of how primates may avoid or decrease the
likelihood of disease transmission?
♣Hamadryas baboons and waterborne disease
• Drink water filtered by sand
♣Millipedes: cebus and eulemur
• Rub millipede juice on them as bug repellent
♣Anting in cebus
• Rub fur with carpenter ants to repel tics
What are the sex differences in ectoparasite number among ring tailed lemurs? What
is a possible explanation for this?
Mean number of ectoparasites per individual:
•Females have extended matrilines, so have more grooming partners
•Males disperse. When enter a new group do not have a lot of friends to groom them
How do primates respond to predation?
♣ Remove yourself from a particular area
♣ Look around for predators
♥Form large groups/mixed species associations
♣ Alarm calls
♣ Seek confrontation
What are some examples of polyspecific associations? Why do primates form these
•Periods when two different species move and rest together as one group
Increased access to foods
Enhanced predator detection-more eyes and ears
Larger group, lowers the chances that any single individual will be preyed upon
Increased predator defense through mobbing and confusion effects
How are anti-predator behaviors affected by body size?
Small primates: < 1kg
♣Concealment/camouflage (aye aye facial patttern)
♣Vigilance (foraging by themselves)
Larger primates: >1 kg
♣Mobbing the predator
How does the environment affect social behavior?
•Gathering together and huddling for warmth
•Can protect resources from other groups
•Other members can help you when another of your species is picking on you
What are the different types of primate social groups?
♥One adult: Noyau—solitary but social e.x. galagos, orangutans
♥One male reproductive group: polygyny (ex. Gorilla, hamadryas baboons, black and white colobus)
♥One female reproductive groups: polyandry (ex. callitrichidae)
♥One male one female: monogamous (ex. Indri, gibbon)
♥Multimale-multifemale (ex. Baboons, macaques, chimps, brown lemurs)
Why do some primates form large groups with many females living together with one
or more males?
•Collective rearing of offspring, especially among related females
•Resource defense access to mates
what are the costs to group living?
•Feeding competition over access to resources
•Increased cost of movement
•Increased transmission of disease and parasite
What is the ideal system for females
♣Ideal system for females: exclude all males (reducing feeding competition); seek out males only when reproductive
What is the ideal system for males
♣Ideal system for males: exclude other males; be the only reproductive male in a one-male group
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